A-Z Of Gardening – T-Z


TAP ROOT – Main central root of a plant, such as that of carrot or parsnip.

TAR-DISTILLATE WASHES – Spray fluids applied to fruit trees and shrubs in dormant season to kill insects and their eggs.

TETRACHLORETHANE – Liquid which rapidly vaporises. Used as fumigant to kill white flies in greenhouses.

THONG – Pieces of root used for cuttings, as with seakale and horseradish.

THRIPS THRIPS – Minute black insects, pests of plants in open and indoors. Cause mottling of leaves, and plants lose vigour and look sick. Regular damping down discourages, but where prevalent spray with nicotine and soft soap solution.

TIGER BEETLES – Green beetles found in south and midlands, chiefly on light soils. They are beneficial.

TURNING IN – Used in two senses by gardener. He speaks of turning fertilizers into soil with fork, and also when plants such as cauliflowers are maturing, he says they are turning-in.

TURNIP – Easily-grown root crops. Sow from April to July in open garden, in drills 12 in, apart, and thin plants to 6 in. White six-week type matures early. Globe forms take a little longer, and may be lifted and stored. Turnip tops are often used as winter greens. For this purpose sow seeds from July to September according to district.

Varieties – Golden Ball, Orange Jelly, Snowball, Manchester Market, Early Six-weeks, Green Top Stone.

Pests – Flea Beet k, Sawfly, Aphis.

Diseases – Clubroot, Dry Rot, Soft Rot.

TURNIP GALL WEEVIL – This pest causes swellings on roots of cabbages and related plants which closely resemble clubroot disease. Plants from nurseryman may have swellings on roots. If caused by clubroot, seller is breaking the law, but if due to gall weevil he is not. To test, cut a few lumps. If small grub inside of hole where one has been, then trouble is gall weevil. However if no grub found, and root is solid white flesh, swellings are due to clubroot. Do not plant these, but those attacked by insect can be planted after cutting open any galls and destroying grubs. Turnip gall weevil adults are small beetle-like creatures which emerge from hibernation in spring and seek out suitable plants such as cabbages, turnips, swedes, brussels sprouts, etc., in which to lay eggs in the skin of root. Larvae hatch out and begin to feed on roots, tissue swelling out to produce galls. To control dust and hoe in a dressing of gammexane.

TWITCH – Couch grass.

VEGETABLE MARROW – Bush form is suitable for cultivation in open garden, while trailing form is ideal for growing on soil heaps and shelters. Sow seeds indoors singly in small pots in April for planting out early June. Prepare site by taking out hole 18 in. to 2 ft. square and 1 ft. deep. Put in manure, fill with good soil and plant. Seeds may be sown out of doors, three to a position. Reduce to one later. Water with liquid manure occasionally as they grow. Stop long-trailing growths, to encourage production of side growths. Use when about foot long. When frost comes marrows can be stored in dry room and will keep for months.

Varieties – Trailing Long White, Trailing Long Green, White Bush, Green Bush.

VIRUS DISEASES – Form of disease caused by organisms or materials which have never yet been isolated. Sap from plants suffering from one of virus diseases can be Injected into sap of healthy plant, and in short time latter will begin to show signs of infection, but it has not yet been found possiLte to discover causative material. Examples are leaf-roll of potato, stripe of tomatoes, the various mosaics of many plants, and crinkle and yellow edge of strawberry leaves.

WASPS – Very beneficial in spring, as the queen wasps destroy many insects. Later they become pests as workers attack fruits. Trace to nests and destroy. Insert crystals of sodium cyanide and pour on to them hydrochloric acid to produce hydrocyanic-acid gas. Calcium cyanide purchased as a powder can be thrown into mouth of nests. After wasps are dead, dig out nest and destroy grubs.

WHITE FLY – Serious pest of tomato and other indoor crops. Can be controlled by fumigation, using either hydrocyanic-acid gas or tetrachlorethane. Latter most commonly used as less dangerous. Supply of white fly parasite should be obtained to keep pest in check. Adult lays eggs in puixt of pest, and grubs feed on therm

WIREWORMS – Many other Soil insects are confused with this common pest. It is larval stage of click beetle and lives on roots and other under- • ground parts of plants. Life as larva may be from three to five years. Eggs are laid mainly in grass; hence land newly broken from tutf is generally infested. Wireworms are easily recognised, usually about in. long when full grown, yellowish-brown in colour and of rather shining appearance. Long and thin and tough-skinned. Head has pair of strong jaws. Three pairs of short legs behind head, and at other end of the body is small stub-like appendage known as the “ anal-foot.” Pest is not easy to control and is hard to destroy. If land is carefully dug in winter and thrown up rough, birds will pick out many, and frost will kill others. If soil is badly infested, dressing of naphthalene, 3 ozs. Per square yard, can be forked in during late winter. Also set traps, such as pieces of carrot or potato pushed below. Surface of soil, skewered on a piece of wood, to pull out easily. Examine frequently and destroy the wireworms attached.

WOODLICE – These creatures feed on plant refuse and frequently on living plants. Discouraged in garden and greenhouse by cleanliness and by removing rotting woodwork and rubbish. Dusting them and their haunts with pyrethrum powder is most effective method of reducing numbers.

WOOLLY APHIS – Serious pest of fruit trees, particularly apples. Also known as American Blight. Insects penetrate holes and cracks in bark, live on the sap, and cause scab-like swelling which is gradually extended. Tar-distillate spraying kills some in autumn. Additional methods are to spray immediately alter leaf tall with paraffin emulsion, and the woolly tufts can be brushed off with paraffin or methylated spirit in summer.

A-Z Of Gardening – Q-S


QUASSIA – Insecticide formerly used much more than today. Can be bought as Quassia Extract, or “chips” can be obtained and steeped in water to provide solution. Soft-bodied insects such as greenfly are vulnerable to it. Said to stop birds pecking leaves if sprayed 011 ground near pea plants.

QuinceQUINCE – Tree grown for decoration, and fruit. Fruit is hard, but has various culinary uses, such as flavouring and preserving, and for making jellies and marmalade.

RADISH – Popular salad, easy to grow, • with different types of roots of many colours. Small-rooted types may be round, such as French Breakfast or Scarlet Globe•’ or oval, or elongated. Colours vary from white to scarlet. Long-rooted varieties can achieve foot in length, such as the white one, White Icicle, or the pink one, China Rose. Sowings of small forms may be made at fortnightly intervals in open garden throughout summer from April. Sow thinly in shallow drills; if too thick, do not swell. May be grown as inter-crop between rows of larger plants. During winter may be raised in greenhouse or frame or over hotbeds. Larger varieties may be sown in June and July and thinned to 4-6 in. apart. Lift in September or October and store in sand.

RED CABBAGE – Cultivation is same as ordinary cabbage.

RED LEAD – Red powder used to dust on pea and bean seeds to discourage mice and birds from digging them up. First damp with paraffin.

RED SPIDER MITE – Tiny creatures belonging to spider group, having eight legs. Greenhouse red spider mite is best known as common in glasshouses, particularly where conditions are dry and hot. Also number of species which are pests of fruit trees, and can be controlled by killing the eggs laid on bark of trees. Ordinary tar-distillate wash is not satisfactory, but good petroleum spray or D.N.C. Is reasonably effective. Tar-distillate spraying may be actually followed by an increase in number of mites as insects which prey on them and keep them in check are probably killed. Greenhouse fonn can be kept in check by good cultural methods such as adequate ventilation and keeping moist atmosphere by damping down, and by syringing plants with water daily. Fruit trees inside can be sprayed – with lime-sulphur 1 in 30, just before blossoms open. Liver of sulphur can also be used as spray. In some glasshouses naphthalene may be vapourised, for example, with cucumbers. In tomato houses, straw can be put down in July and swept up in October. Stalks provide ideal places for mites to hibernate. Thus many can be destroyed.

REPELLANTS (Deterrents) – Use of chemicals to prevent pests attacking particular plants, e.g., spraying celery with paraffin emulsion to keep fly away. Following can be used – naphthalene, paraffin and sand, paraffin emulsion, soot and lime mixed, dichlorobenzene.

REVERSION – Disease of blackcurrant bushes, cause is not completely known. It is virus disease, noticeable for alterations in shape of leaves, which slowly lose distinctive currant form and become like nettle leaves. Therefore also called nettle-leaf disease. Flower bunches are affected and do not fruit well. Trouble is progressive and whole bush may revert. Destroy badly-affected bushes.

RHUBARB – Easily-grown vegetable used as fruit. Buy good, strong crowns which have not been forced. Roots which have been forced are frequently placed on market for sale, and take few years to become useful. Plants can also be raised from seeds which can be sown in boxes or outside in April. Thin to 12 in. apart, and transplant to permanent position following spring. Plant in February or March 4 ft. apart, just covering tops with soil. Cover with animal, manure. Do not pick any stalks first year, and remove flower heads which form. Old crowns ca be divided in spring to increase quantity. Stalk can be obtained from November on by forci Earliest are forced under cover in warm shed greenhouse. Lift good roots and leave on surf a of soil exposed to weather for 10 days or so, Ta inside, place under bench, and pack with Water thoroughly and exclude light. Form outside takes longer. Place deep boxes or barrel over selected crowns and cover with layer o fresh manure or dry leaves.

Varieties – Champagne, Early Albert, Victoria,

RIDGING – Throwing up soil into ridges while digging exposes larger surface to beneficial action of weather. Heavy soils are better if ridged, as they need maximum weathering. Divide gardem into strips 3 ft. wide. Take out trench lit. wide’ across end of first strip. Clean out crumbs and put soil on path. Turn over soil into trench, as when digging ordinarily, but do it its the following •’ manner – cut out one spadeful 1 ft. wide and 1 ft, deep, and place near centre of trench ; cut out next spadeful and place it beside first, also near centre; cut out third and last spadeful and place it on top of other two ; clean out crumbs and put , on top. Work backwards in this way, up and down various strips, and thus create series of ridges.

ROOD – Quarter of acre.

ROOT PRUNING – Method of checking fruit trees which produce too much growth and too little fruit. ‘fake out trench 2-3 ft. from stem, about lit, wide and as deep as necessary. Cu back all strong roots, but not fibrous ones. Reel with soil. Do work in early winter. Trench can le • taken all round tree, or halfway one year other half next year. Rather laborious job whe has to some extent been superseded by bat], ringing.

ROTATION OP CROPS – Crops are normally classified for garden purposes into four groups – (1) Permanent crops like rhubarb, asparagus, seakale, fruit trees and bushes, which occupy land for many years and do not enter into ordinary rotation; (2) green crops like cabbage, sprouts, kales, etc., and, perhaps, leeks; (3) potato and root crops, including turnips, carrots, beet and onions; (4) pea and bean crops. Last three groups are important in rotation. Gardener should try to organise three groups of roughly equal size, and to do it some little adjustment may be necessary between groups. For instance, it may be advisable to add onions to pea and bean class. Any alteration should take into consideration requirements of respective vegetables. Groups, being of equal size, can be interchange death year, and location of each should be, altered so that it comes back to same position,’ once in three, years. Advantages of rotation are

Itta I It evens out demands on plant foods in .41, and spreads effects of various plants over ..11 the garden. For example, roots of par… 11,, end carrots have penetrating power and help

lerrok up soil; intensive cultivation received by eetatoes, and possibilities of pest and disease at I auks ate lessened. Strawberries, if grown, must ba Included in rotation.

RUNTS – Class of fungi, parasitic on green plants. General symptom is brown discolouration I attend by production of spores which resemble t tett. Wheat rust is probably most important.

SAGE – Popular herb which grows as small shrubby plant. Thrives best in light, well-drained soil. Raised from seeds or cuttings. Take cuttings of soft young growths in May ‘and June, insert in hoses of sandy soil, and put in frame or under loches. Cut’ growths in August and September and dry slowly.

SALSIFY – Also called Vegetable Oyster. Grown ler roots. Sow in drills 12 in. apart and in. deep. I ‘tin seedlings to Pin. Apart. Hoe and weed in summer, and apply dressing of general fertilizer. When leaves change colour in autumn, lift and store roots in sand.

NAND – Sharp river sand, not sea sand or windblown sand, is used to mix in potting soils to make them lighter and more workable. Sand consists chiefly of silica, a constituent of most soils. Where high proportion is present, soil is light or sandy. Such soils warm early in spring, dry rapidly in summer, and tend to suffer during drought. Vegetable matter rapidly decays in sandy soils, so frequent additions of manure are necessary. Wet, heavy manures, such as cow or pig, are better than light, strawy manure.

SAPROPHYTE – Plant which gets food and nourishment from decaying organic matter. Many bacteria and fungi are saprophytes and help decay of dead plants.

SAVORY (Satureia) – There are two forms of this useful herb. Summer Savory and Winter Savory. First is sown during April in drills 12 in. apart and thinned to 6 in. Pull up plants in autumn and hang up to dry. Winter Savory is sown about same time on seed bed, and seedlings are transplanted when few inches high to 15 in. apart. Savories are bushes, and plants will last for a few years. Young growths are cut and dried.

SAVOY CABBAGE – Hardy form of cabbage grown for winter use. Sow in April on seed bed and transplant to permanent positions during May and June. Plant 2 ft. by 2 ft. Varieties for succession are Best of All, Ormskirk Earle, Onnskirk Medium, Ormshirk Late, and Rearguard. Tiny varieties, such as Early Ulm, which mature In September and October, should be planted 18 in. by 181n.

SCALE INSECTS – Group of insects found on plants out of doors and in greenhouse. Young scales hatch from eggs, crawl to young thin-skinned parts of plants, push proboscis into plant and settle down, staying there for remainder of ‘ life. These are all females; males are tiny winged creatures.

SCORZONERA – Root vegetable; also called Viper’s Grass. Similar in cultivation to salsify.

SEAKALE – Hardy vegetable grown for blanched shoots which are forced. Likes rich well-dug soil. Propagated from pieces of thick root, known as thongs. Thongs are taken from crowns lifted for forcing and stored in sand until required. Plant out thongs in March either 18 in. apart in rows 2 ft. apart, or in triangles 1 ft. apart with 3 ft. between triangles. Triangle method is adopted for outdoor forcing. Can be raised from seed sown on bed in April, thinned to 6 in. apart, and transplanted following February. To force, lift roots and place 2 in. apart in boxes of soil. Place under greenhouse bench in temperature of 50° F., and keep in dark. To force out of doors, cover with deep box or barrel and heap over with strawy manure or dry leaves.

SEAKALE BEET – Grown for thick white Mid-ribs of leaves. Cultivation is similar to Spinach

SEAWEED – Seaweed can be used to make a valuable manure. Collect and build into compost heaps.

SEEDS – Flowering plants normally reproduce themselves by seeds. Home-saved seeds usually show a good percentage of germination, but since unavoidable crosses occur in a garden, there is usually some doubt as to the quality – of the resulting seedlings. It is safe to save onion and leek seed, runner beans and peas, if they are well matured, well harvested and stored correctly. It is never safe to save seed of brassicas in a small garden. They are likely to have become crossed with wild and inferior plants and the seedlings are frequently worthless.

SELECTIVE WEED-KILLERS – These are special chemicals that affect the growth of some plants without harming others. In actual practice they are only used on lawns, where they have no harmful effect on the grass, but are absolutely fatal to certain weeds, and discouraging to some others. They are applied its solution, being watered on the grass, and left to do their work. Gradually the plantains and other weeds that are affected die out, and the grass takes their place. Amateur gardeners often ask for a “selective weed-killer that lean use to destroy the grass on flower beds and leave the plants unharmed.” Unfortunately this is not at present practicable, and selective weed-killers should be kept away from flower borders and from the roots of specimen trees and shrubs that may occupy a position on the lawn.

SELF-FERTILE – Before fruit trees can produce fruit, flowers require to be pollinated. In other words, pollen from stamens or male organs of the dower must come into contact with the pistil or female organ. Where the pollen can be used to poUinate female organs of same variety, that variety is said to be self-fertile.

SELF-STERILE – Sometimes pollen of variety of fruit is useless on pistil of that variety. Such varieties are said to be self-sterile. Flowers therefore must be pollinated by pollen from a nother variety which flowers at same time. It is often necessary to resort to mixed planting to effect this.

SETS – Portion of plant for putting out in soil. Usually applied to portions of roots or tubers.

SEWAGE SLUDGE – Waste residue from sewage works is of value on land, though percentages of plant foods in it vary considerably. Can usually be obtained for cartage costs, and is good because it adds humus to soil. Make into con post heap where., possible.

SHADING – Greenhouses are usually shaded during hot period of summer. Best but dearest method is to have special roller blinds fitted to greenhouse. Alternatively, glass can be sprayed with whitewash or special green colourant. Seedlings and cuttings in frames and greenhouses often need shading until established.

SHALLOT – Species of annuli resembling small onion. Can be raised front seeds, but is usually propagated from cloves. Plant in February, pushing them half Into the soil, 9 in. by 12 in., and not burying them. Many growths will be produced, and base of each growth will swell into small bulb. Keep hoed and weed-free, and give dressing of fertilizer. In Jury, leaves will die down, and plants can be lifted, ripened and stored.

SILVER LEAF – Serious disease of plum trees, which also attacks apples, pears and peaches, nectarines, sonic bush fruits, and ornamental trees such as laburnum. Leaves of affected branches become silver-grey. Fungus causing disease enters through cuts or wounds and spreads through stem. Affected branches should be cut out before middle of July. Begin high up branch and cut pieces off until brown stain in tikties of wood has disappeared. Burn prunings.

SINGLING – Reducing row of seedlings to single specimens every few inches.

SLUGS and SNAILS – Familiar to everyone. Slugs are more widespread. Snails, and larger forms of slugs, can be reduced considerably by trapping. They hide during day, and traps such as boards, pots, cut potatoes, etc., can be put down in strategic positions for them to hide under. Examine daily and destroy pests. A mixture of Paris green and bran, Metaldehyde and bran, or Metaldehyde and dried tea-leaves, can be used as poison bait, placed in small heaps among crops. These baits are not very effective against small black slugs which feed underground as well as on the surface – those which eat roots and hod’ boles in potatoes. A liquid slug destroyer for these.

SOILLESS CULTURE – This is the cultivation of plants in some medium such as sand, sawdust gravel, etc., which has no plant food in it an is of a sterile nature, that s, it will not harbbur pests or diseases. To feed the plants the esseritini chemical foods are supplied in solution. 0,;-standing success in certain commercial ventures – carnation growing and the production of salads in hot climates, for example – is encouraging further research and development of the practise For further information, consult literature published under the name “’Hydroponics.”

SOOT – Can be used to feed plants, as it contains little nitrogen, and also as insecticide. Do not use soot fresh – it contains harmful sulphur and should be kept In open shed for six months.

SPINACH – Two forms of ordinary spinach are grown. Round-seeded in summer, and prickly. Seeded in winter. First sowings of round are made in March, and at regular intervals until June. Can be grown as intercrop. As later sowings tend to run to seed in dry weather, use varieties such as Long-standing Round. Thin to 4-6 in. between the plants. Sow prickly or winter spinach in August or early September in rows 12 in, apart, and thin to 6 in.

SPINACH BEET – Perpetual spinach. Beet’ grown for strong green leaves. Two sowings usually made, first in April for summer crop. The second in July for winter. Sow in drills 15 in. apart and thin seedlings to 9 in. Hoe, and give’, dressing of general fertilizer. When cutting remove leaves from several plants instead of cutting one plant right down.

SPINACH, NEW ZEALAND – Grown for tip, of shoots. Requires ample room. Sow in May in pinches, or in pots under glass in April lot planting out in May. Plants should be 3 ft. spurt,

SPIT – Spade’s depth of soil.

SPORE – Plants of non-flowering types, surli a, fungi, do not reproduce themselves by forming seeds, but give rise to minute single-celled bodies known as spores. Unlike seed, they do not contaM embryo plant.

SPRAYS – Numerous chemicals are used to spray plants for control of insect pests and diseases. Applied with syringe or large sprayers such as pneumatic knapsack type.

SPREADER – To ensure that spray liquid spreads evenly, substances such as soft soap or saponin are mixed with solution. They reduce surface tension and, instead of liquid staying in drops as ordinary water does, it spreads out in even film. This is important with sucking insects, which are thus covered and suffocated. Certain proprietary compounds are used for caterpillars, as poison is used for them, and it must stick to leaf. Such poisons are sometimes known as “stickers.”

SPUR – Short, fruit-bearing growth on fruit trees.

STAGGER – Placing of more than one row of seeds or plants in such a way that the individuals of one row are opposite to the spaces of the next row.

STAKING – Many plants grow tall and have not strength to remain upright. Others are natural climbers. Staking is important for these. Twigs and sticks can be used for peas and beans, or strong, wide-mesh netting.

STANDARD – Fruit tree grown on clean stem 6 ft. from ground.

STEAMED BONE FLOUR – Bone meal, from which both gelatine and fats have been removed for industrial purposes. Residue is merely yellow powder, rich in phosphates which are more quickly available than with bone meal.

STERILIZATION OF SOIL – To kill fungi and pests, soil can be partially sterilized by heating or by treating with chemicals. Most efficient method is steaming, which, however, requires fairly large apparatus for any considerable quan- tity of soil. Temperature is raised to 190° F. and maintained for 10 minutes. This is sufficient to destroy most pests. Baking can also be done, and small quantities can be heated over a fire. Danger with this method is complete burning out of soil. Chemicals are not so effective as steaming, but are often only method possible in small garden. Formalin and cresylic acid are two chemicals used, and there are several proprietary liquids on the market.

STOPPING – When plant has reached adequate size, it is stopped, that is, growing point is pinched out. Stopping is also used to make plants bush out.

STORAGE OF VEGETABLES – Main crops of root vegetables, such as potatoes, carrots, turnips, beet, etc., are harvested in late September and October. Small quantities can be placed in sacks and kept in cool shed or room for early use. Large numbers require more elaborate treatment. Commonest method of storing out of doors is to build a clamp. All root crops keep excellently in these. Carrots, beet, turnips, salsify, kohl rabi, etc., keep well in sand. Remove leaves and growths and arrange roots in layers, putting sand over each layer. They may be put in large boxes or barrels, or heap can be built in a corner of shed. Alternatively a place can be made for them against outside wall by putting plank or two some 2 ft. from wall, making firm with supports. Put roots down in layers between wall and plank and cover with sand. See that drips do not fall from building on to store. In had weather sacks can be placed over top. Crops such as parsnips, Jerusalem artichokes, and leeks may be left in open garden, as hardest weather will not harm them. Normally lifted and stored only when land is wanted for digging, or if prolonged spell of frost threatens, which will prevent the crops being dug for use as required. SUBSOIL – There is usually fairly, clear division between the surface soil and that beneath. Surface layer may be about 9 in. thick, perhaps more. Below this lies subsoil. It is usually lighter in colour, and is generally unfertile until exposed to the weather for some time.

SUCCESSIONAL CROPPING – Phrase is used in two senses – (1) sowing at intervals of two or three weeks of one type of vegetable in order to have a continuous supply; (2) following of one type of crop with another, in other words, use of piece of land for two crops in one season.

SUCKER – Growths from rootstock of plant as with raspberries. With grafted plants, such as apples, suckers should be removed.

SULPHATE OF AMMONIA – Nitrogenous fertilizer containing 20 per cent. Nitrogen. Normally acid, though neutral form can be obtained. On heavy, sour soils better to use nitro-chalk.

SULPHATE OF POTASH – Valuable potash fertilizer, scarce at present. Contains 48 per cent. Potassium.

SULPHUR – Used in various forms as fungicide and insecticide. For use as dust, flowers of sulphur, green sulphur, or black sulphur can be obtained. As fumigant, it can be vaporised or sulphur candles burned. For insects, used chiefly in form of lime-sulphur.

SULPHURIC ACID – Used as weed-killer chiefly among plants with straight, parallel-veined leaves.

SUPERPHOSPHATE OF LIME – Phosphatic fertilizer containing different proportion of phosphorus according to sample. The name, however, is somewhat misleading, as it contains no free lime.

SURFACE SOIL – Top 9 in. of soil is surface soil. Generally quite distinct from subsoil below, and clear line of demarcation can often be seen.

SWEDE TURNIP – Large roots grown mainly for storage. Sow in May in rows 18 in. apart, and thin seedlings to 9 in. Hoe and weed, and give dressing of general fertilizer. Lift in autumn and store in small clamp.

A-Z Of Gardening – P


PARAFFIN EMULSION – Effective insecticide, particularly useful in keeping insects such as flies from laying eggs in or near plants. Smell seems to make plants distasteful. The ingredients are 1 pint paraffin, lb. Soft soap, 10 gallons water. To make, boil some water and dissolve soft soap in it. Keep stirring, pour in paraffin, and make up to 10 gallons with water. Place syringe in liquid, and work forcibly to get thorough mixing of ingredients. Apply to celery, carrots, onions, and other plants attacked by flies.

PARIS GREEN (Arsenic oxide) – Strong poison, must be used with care. Commonly used and mixed with bait, such as bran, to kill pests like cockroaches, earwigs and slugs.

PARSLEYPARSLEY – Herb much used for garnishing and flavouring. Two sowings are usual, in April and July, to provide succession through most of year. Seed is rather slow in germinating, so some should be sown in boxes in greenhouse in March, planting out in April, Those sown outside should be thinned to 6 in. apart. Favouriteposition for parsley is along side of path as edging.

Variety – Giant Curled.

PARSNIP – Easily-grown root vegetable Thrives best on land reanured year before for some other crop, and deeply dug. Sow in February or March, the sooner the better. Mark out drills 15-18 in. apart, and put in pinches of seed at intervals of 9 in. Sow little radish seed in drill. This will germinate before parsnip and indicate rows, so that hoeing can be done. Remove the radishes when ready and thin out parsnips to one at each station. No special treatment is required apart from weeding and dressing of general fertilizer. On hard, heavy soils, bore holes 2 ft. deep with bar, and fill with fine soil. Sow few seeds at top of each. This is laborious but worth while when growing for exhibition. Few troubles affect parsnips – the worst is rust, which occurs on the roots. This is not a disease, but is due to rupturing of skin cells in sudden growth after dry weather. Fungi enter cells and cause brown rust-like appearance. Parsnips can be left in garden all winter. Lift as required.

Varieties – Student, Tender and True, Offenham.

PEA – Popular summer vegetable. Main sowings are from March to August (in north, April to July). In favoured districts, seeds can be sown in November on warm border, but this it too risky for general use. Land should be deeply dug and mixed with farmyard manure. Dressing of bone meal, about k lb. Per square yard, is worth while before sowing. Distance between rows is usually equal to height of variety. For earliest sowing choose dwarf, round-seeded variety. Take out drill 9 in. wide and $ in. deep, and scatter seeds along it 3 in. apart. When seedlings are through, protect from bird attacks by covering rows with black cotton. Stake with pea sticks (though this is not essential with dwarf varieties) or support with strong string netting. Taller varieties must be staked. To keep up continuous supply, sow seeds at fortnightly intervals. For successful culture of tall variettes, best method is to dig out a trench 10-12 in. deep in late winter, and to leave it open for some weeks to weather. Put in layer of manure, fill with soil, and sow seeds. Feed with liquid manure as they grow.

PEACH – Grown in glasshouses or outdoors on wall facing south, usually fan-trained. Border should be well prepared, and ample quantity of I-in, bones mixed with it before planting. Plant early autumn, allowing 12-15 ft. between trees. Train earliest branches sideways, gradually building up trees as years pass, working from outside and filling centre last. Pruning consists of cutting out wood which has borne fruit after fruit has been picked. Walls are brushed down, and branches and twigs tied in, evenly spaced out. Crossing of twigs should be avoided. In spring far too many shoots are produced, and should be thinned out. Fruits also need thinning before they “stone,” reducing them to one per square foot. Culture consists of watering when necessary and feeding with fertilizer and occasionally with lime. Protect ripening fruit from birds, wasps and earwigs.

Varieties – Duke of York, Peregrine.

PEACH LEAF-CURL – Disease of peaches and nectarines which causes malformation of the leaves. Spray with Bordeaux mixture in February or March, just before buds begin to swell.

PERENNIAL – Plant which lives for snore than two years, flowering and producing seed at regular intervals.

PERMANGANATE OF POTASH – Chemical substance consisting of purple-coloured crystals. Not used so much now as formerly in garden. Sblution watered on soil destroys spores of fungi.

PISTIL – Female parts of flower, containing the stigma, style and ovary.

PLANTING – Vegetable plants areusually set in holes made with a trowel or a dibber. Soil is firmed around roots. Seed potatoes are best planted in drills taken out with spade or drag hoe. Never plant when soil is wet and sticky. Often necessary on heavy soils to walk on plank while planting. Planting of fruit trees. And bushes needs special care. Land should be dug correctly first, because holes made in undug land may become collecting centres for water. Take out hole at least 2 ft. across, and remove all top soil. Fork the subsoil and work in little manure. Sprinkle soil over this, drive in stake, and put in tree or bush. Cut damaged roots and spread others evenly. See that depth of planting is about same as plant has been in before; soil mark (an be seen on stem. Cover roots with soil and, before firming, work plant gently up and down to settle soil around roots. Tread firmly and finish surface with layer of loose soil.

POLE – Rod or Perch. 301 square yards.

POLLEN – Yellow dust produced on the anthers of flowers. Consists of male half-cells or gametes. Essential for proper fruit and seed production that it be carried to pistil or female organs. For instance, fruits of tomatoes will not develop correctly unless flowers have been properly pollinated.

PORTUGAL CABBAGE, or COUVE TRONCHUDA – Vegetable grown for the thick white midribs of leaves. Similar cultivation to ordinary cabbage.

POTASH or POTASSIUM – Essential food element for plants, contained in various fertilizers such as sulphate of potash and inuriate of potash. Also present in wood ashes and line dust.

POTATO – Order seed potatoes early; and set up in boxes to sprout. Rhis advances growth, permits diseased tubers to be picked out, and number of sprouts to be reduced to two per tuber. Large seeds can be cut into halves, each portion to have two sprouts or eyes. Ideal crop for planting on newly-broken land. Plant earlies I.nd of March or early April, according to locality. Distance apart 2 ft. by 15 in. Follow with second earlies and main-crop, 2 ft. 6 in. by 18 in. Plant in drills 5-8 in. deep. As plants grow, earth them up, especially on dirty land, as it helps to clean. Give at least one dressing of general fertilizer immediately before ridging. Watch for blight attacks, and spray with Bordeaux mixture as preventive or control. Lift earlies in July and August, following on with others. Maincrops should be lifted and stored in sacks or clamps. Varieties – EARUES – Sitarpe’s Express, Arran Pilot, Di Vernon, Epicure, Duke of York; SECOND EARLIES – Great Scot, Arran Banner, Dunbar Rover – MAI:VCROP Kerr’s Pink, Majestic, Golden Wonder, king Edward VII, Redskin, Gladstone, Arran Peak.

Pests – Slugs, Wireworms, Ca/mid Bugs, Greenfly, Eelworms, Diseases – Scab, Black Leg, Blight, Dry Rot, Mosaic and Leaf Roll.

POTATO BLIGHT – Common disease. Farmers . New spray crops regularly as a routine measure whether disease is present or not. Usually appears in south in early June, and as year proceeds goes hirther north. Disease does not usually occur a here there l sulphur in atmosphere as in towns.

First attacks are usually on lower leaves, but later it reaches upper parts of plant. Dark green spots appear on leaves, which tum brown or black. White mould-like growth can usually be seen around margins of patches, caused by spore-bearing bodies of fungus. These spots spread infection. Spraying or dusting with Bordeaux mixture is usual remedy. Dust can be purchased already made up. Spray should consist of blue-stone (copper sulphate), 4 ova., hydrated lime, 5 ozs., water, 21 gallons. Bluestone is dissolved in quart of water, and lime mixed with remainder. When bluestone is completely dissolved, pour it into lime-water and stir well. Tubers may be infected with disease. These should never be stored, but picked out and only clean ones put into clamp. When crop is infected with blight, cut off tops at least week before lifting, and burn.

PRICKING-OUT – When seedlings are set out few inches apart in boxes, frames, or outside beds, to grow on for transplanting, they are “pricked-out.” Term probably comes from use of small dibber to priek holes in soil.

PRUNING – Main reason for pruning fruit trees and bushes is to train them and produce a particular form of tree. Other objects are to space out branches and give them room for development, to encourage production of fruits, and to remove any dead or diseased wood, Summer pruning ol fruit trees is done to ripen wood and expose fruit to sun. Winter pruning is begun soon after leaf fall and completed by January. Apples and pears which bear fruit on short spurs are carefully pruned according to each tree’s requirements. Side shoots are cut back to two buds, and main leader by third of its length. Other trees and bushes are pruned according to how they carry their fruits. The raspberry, for instance, bears fruit mainly on young canes, so each year after fruiting old canes are cut out. Blackcurrants carry fruit on old wood, so they are only thinned out, an old branch being removed each year as a rule. All pruning cuts should be clean, and large ones should be painted to exclude disease spores.

PUDDLING – It is common practice when planting out in dry weather to make thick mixture of clay and water and squeeze some around roots of plants, or just to dip them in it. WW1 brassicas, lime is frequently mixed with puddle, and this helps to ward off clubroot.

A-Z Of Gardening – O


ONIONS – Difficult vegetable to grow really well, but average results obtained without much difficulty. Chief requirements are firm soil, rich soil, and plenty of sun at the season’s end to help ripening. Onion can be worked into ordinary crop rotation and moved to different part of garden each year like other plants, or grown in the same place continuously if special onion bed is prepared and given preferential treatment in way of manure.

ONIONSOnion bed is first part of the garden to be dug in autumn. Early digging allows soil to settle. This is important, as onion does not flourish on loose, spongy soil. Also obtains maximum weathering. Did as deeply as possible, the best method being bastard trenching two spits deep. This breaks up soil thoroughly to depth of 2 ft., and manure can be mixed in at different revels.

Heavy soils should be ridged on top to expose large surface to weather. In spring, when soil is in good condition for working, give bed dressing of bone meal, wood ashes and old soot, and fork them into surface. Loosen soil few inches down and remove any large stones. Leave thus until ready for planting or sowing. Seeds of autumn sown onions are put in during August. Sheltered position is chosen and seed sown in drills 52 in. apart. Varieties used for this purpose are Italian or Tripoli onions, such as Giant Rocca, Red and White Tripoli and Giant Zittau. In south and midlands onions will normally over-winter successfully, but in north they will need protection. Better to sow in cold frame and only put lights on about December when weather begins to get bad. Alternatively, cloches can be used to cover rows, or temporary frame erected over them. Plant on to onion bed in March or as soon as weather permits. These onions should mature in July or August, but are prone to rim to seed. When seed heads appear snap them off; bulbs will be useful in any case.

To obtain large onions, sow seeds in greenhouse in January of such varieties as Ailsa Craig or Cranston’s Excelsior. Put in boxes of good, well-mixed soil, and sow broadcast or space seeds 1 in. apart each way. Latter method obviates pricking out, but blanks are likely where seeds fail to germinate, and can be filled from other boxes. After sowing, water boxes and cover with sheet of glass and paper until seeds have germinated. Keep in a temperature of 55°-60° F. When seedlings are through, remove glass and paper and place boxes as near light as possible. Keep in greenhouse week or two before planting out, when they should be moved into frame and gradually hardened off. Plant eat in April or soon as possible.

Care needed in planting, particularly on heavier soils. Remove plants from boxes, few at a time, taking care not to damage roots. Make holes with trowel, put roots in, and firm with hands. In planting, depth should be no more than small bulb at the base of the plant. If put in deeper plants become thick-necked; if shallower, apt to be blown about and find difficulty in getting hold. On light sandy soils plants can be put in more deeply, as sandy soil does not prevent bulbs from swelling. Heavier soils tend to cake, and by squeezing bulb make plants thick-necked. Distances apart 12 by 9 in. For ordinary crops, sow seed direct on to bed in March in rows 12 In. apart. Sow thinly. In many parts of north, sowing is often delayed until well into April; hence it is better to raise plants inside and plant out. Those sown outside can either be thinned to one every six inches, or left unthinned. Latter method has advantage of not attracting fly. Smaller bulbs are produced, but yield per row is greater. These small bulbs keep well. Varieties for ordinary purposes – James Keeping, Bedfordshire Champion.

All onions, autumn-sown or otherwise, should have occasional dressings of general fertilizer. Salad onions can be sown at any time during summer. Leave unthinned and pull as required. White Lisbon is often used for salad onions, and White Queen and Pear Pickle’, are used for pickling onions.

ONION FLY – Similar pest to carrot fly. Widespread nuisance. Adult fly is grey and resembles house-fly in shape. Appears in spring and lays eggs on necks of small bulbs of onions and in soil nearby. Eggs are white and very small, hatch soon, usually after three days, and maggots make their way to base of onions and bore way in to feed. Attacked plants turn yellow and obviously look sick. If polled up, fat, dirty-white maggots wilt-be found inside. Control of pest is not easy, but following are a few things that can be done. Early planting helps, and is one of advantages of autumn-sown onions, as pest attacks smaller plants rather than larger ones. Application of deterrent is usual control. Chemicals are put down to keep off adult flies and prevent them laying eggs. Naphthalene, paraffin and sand, and paraffin emulsion are in this category, while old soot chisted on frequently has beneficial effect. Naphthalene should be hoed in at side of rows. Calomel dust applied to base of plants has lately been used with effect; eggs laid in it are killed.

ONION MILDEW – Fungus disease which commonly attacks onions, generally bad in wet seasons. Disease starts on leaves which turn yellow and decay; spreads to bulbs which go soft and rot. Where trouble has arisen, change location of onion bed, and choose sunny, well-drained spot. Dust plants with flowers of sulphur. ONION SETS – Where ordinary onion culture is not easy, “sets” are sometimes used instead of plants. They are small bulbs about size of marbles raised from seed sown late previous year. Formerly many were imported from Middle East. If too large they tend to bolt, if too small they merely produce leaves arid no bulbs. Sets are planted in March, being pushed half into soil 6 in. apart in rows 1 ft. apart.

ORGANIC MANURES – Organic, used in this sense, means produced from living materials, or material which has lived, as distinct from minerals. Manures are usually divided into natural, such as farmyard manure, and artificial. Artificial is again divided into two classes – organic, such as bone meal and dried blood, both animal products; and inorganic, such as sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of soda, both pure chemicals. Organic fertilizer is preferable to inorganic fertilizer.

OYSTER SHELL SCALE – Scale insect, shaped rather like oyster shell, which is pest of plums, apple, pear, apricot, peach and nectarine trees. *Occurs in large numbers on bark, and trees are greatly weakened. Difficult to- control. Badly-infected trees should be cut down and burned.

A-Z Of Gardening – N


NAPHTHALENE – Waste product from manufacture of coal gas, used to make moth balls. Same principle makes it useful against certain garden pests. Smell is strong and acts as deterrent, keeping pests away. Insects otherwise difficult to control, such as various flies, are discouraged from laying eggs. Crude naphthalene is generally used. Hoed into the soil at rate of 2 ozs. Per square yard it also is a soil fumigant. The Grade 16 quality is sometimes vapounsed in greenhouses to kill pests such as red spider mites, NECK – Part of plant just above roots, also particularly applied to place on onions where leaves and bulb join.

NECTARINENECTARINE – Smooth-skinned form of peach. Culture is identical. Can be grown in greenhouse or outside on south-acing wall.

Varieties – Cardinal, Early Rivers, Lord Napier.

NETS – Used in garden for various purposes. Fish nets protect wall fruit in flower from frosts, and later protect fruits from birds and insects. Larger mesh netting is often used for training peas.

NICOTINE – Effective insecticide. Alkaloid extracted from tobacco waste, and normally purchased at 98 per cent. Strength. Diluted with water and mixed with soft soap or other spreader to make effective spray. Suggested recipe is nicotine, 1 fluid oz.;, potash soft soap, 1 lb.; water 10 gallons. Deadly poison, store away from children.

NICOTINE SHREDS – Special shreds made of paper soaked in nicotine and used for fumigating greenhouses, smouldering to produce dense smoke.

NITRATE OF AMMONIA – Nitrogenous fertilizer containing 35 per cent. Nitrogen. Normally too strong for ordinary use, but often employed to mix in general fertilizers.

NITRATE OF LIME – Nitrates are very soluble and quickly available to plants. This one contains 13 per cent, nitrogen and also lime, which makes it suitable for adding to heavy soils. Has disadvantage of being deliquescent, or absorbing moisture so rapidly that it melts. Consequently should be purchased in wooden casks. Usual application is f oz. To square yard.

NITRATE OF POTASH – Saltpetre. Excellent fertilizer for producing quick growth. Contains about 17 per cent. Nitrogen. Usual dressing is f -1 oz. Per square yard, or used as liquid manure dissolve f oz. In 1 gallon of water.

NITRATE OF SODA – Most commonly used of nitrates. Also called Chile saltpetre or nitre. Contains 151 per cent, nitrogen, and quantities used are same as nitrate of potash. These nitrates mire purely stimulants, and greatest value is to encourage growth of green crops.

NITRO-CHALK – Fertilizer of which nitrate of ammonia is basis. Excellent on heavy soils in place of sulphate of ammonia, which tends to make them more sticky. Usual application, 1-1f ozs. Per square yard to growing plants, or just before sowing or planting.

NITROGEN – Essential element to plants. At least 4/5ths of the atmosphere is made up of nitrogen yet this gas is not available to plants. They obtain it from soil in form of nitrates so far as is known. Only cases where atmospheric nitrogen is used is when nitrifying bacteria on roots of plants of pea family (legumes), fix it, and hand it to plants in exchange for place to live and for food. Nitrogen has effect on plants of stimulating growth and developing leaf surface. Lack is shown in stunted growth and underdeveloped plants.

NITROGENOUS MANURES – Fertilizer containing nitrogen, such as nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, dried blood, etc.

NYMPH – Larval stage of many insects, such as the apple sucker, greenhouse leaf-hopper, or cockroach. Most insects have larvse which in no way resemble adults (e.g., caterpillars of butterflies); but nymphs do resemble their adults, usually being small replicas, wingless or with rudimentary wings. They grow to adult size by moulting skins.

A-Z Of Gardening L-M

leaf miners

LACEWINGS – Delicate flies wits green wings. Beneficial because larvie feed on green flies and similar pests.

LADYBIRD – Familiar beetles, beneficial both as larvae and adults. Feed on green flies, scale Insects, lest hoppers, etc.

LAYERING – Method of propagation of new plants. Branches or side growths are partially severed, pegged down into soil until rooted, and then severed. Strawberries lend themselves naturally to layering.

LEADER – Year’s growth of fruit-tree branch or stem, which is a contibuation of main branch. Not a lateral.

leaf minersLEAF MINERS – Various insects lay eggs in plant leaves, and larva – tunnel through tissues of leaf. Dimeult to control once inside, as leaf skin protects them. Apply suitable deterrent to plants to keep fly away, e.g.,.parafiin emulsion.

LEATHER-JACKETS – Lame of the daddy-longlegs or crane fly. Pest in lawns and sometimes troublesome among vegetables on newly-broken land. Lightly fork in a dressing of gammexane.

LEEK – Vegetable of onion family of fairly easy culture. Suffers from few diseases, is hardy and matures during .winter. Seeds sown in February to April, the earliest inside, later ones on outdoor seed bed. Plant in rows IZ in. apart ‘ with 9 in from plant to plant. Usual method is to make hole 6-0 in. deep, and 2 in.. across, and drop young plants in after trimming leaves. Plants are watered only, hole not being filled in. For exhibition purposes generally grown in trenches 6 in. deep, and earthed-up as they grow to obtain good length of white stein.

Varieties – Musselburgh Improved, The Lyon, Prizetaker.

LEGUME – Name given to all pad bearing plants such as peas and beans, tram natural order – Leguinsnosua.

LETTUCE – Valuable salad, easy to produce. Succession can be obtained all the year round by using frame’s and cloches in winter First sowing made in January in greenhouse in boxes ot soil. Prick seedlings into other boxes, harden off gradually and plant in open garden. Sow again in February and March, planting outside until May. Good varieties for these sowings are AU the Year Round, Webb’s Wonderful. Make sowing in open garden in April, and thin out seedlings; from then until August sow at intervals ot tort-night. Transplanting in summer is not generally good as plants are difficult to establish in dry weather. Varieties for summer culture are Unrivalled, Continuity, AU the Year Round, • Favourite. For aut min lettuce sew in July and early August, and thin to 9 in. aphrt. For winter lettuce sow in late August and plant out in September. These will need cloche protection in some parts, or should be planted in cold frames. Seeds sown in September can be grown in cold greenhouses. Varieties tor winter, outside, are May Queen, May King, Arctic King; tor greenhouse culture, Ciseshunt Early Giant, tiottea-forcer, Tennis Ball. Sow seeds in October in frames and greenhouse tor late winter and spring crop. Cabbage lettuce varieties mentioned above are good tor intercroppang Detween rows ot other vegetables. Cos lettuce is more upright than cabbage lettuce, but also easy to grow. When nearly mature, tie round middle to blanch centre leaves.

LIGHT – Glass top of frame.

LIME – Word used for all forms of lime applied to soil, such as quicklime, waste lime, hydrated lime, carbonate ot lime, etc. Also used tor calcium, which is essential element of these substances. Calcium itself is plant food, but real value of these lime substances is that when added to the soil they react with acids and neutralise them ****************** Acid Soil). Chalk and limestone are quarried and burned in kilns, resulting product being quicklime, or burnt lime and lamp lime. This absorbs water up to about halt own weight and yet remains dry. As it absorbs moisture, great heat is generated and lime falls into line powder, known as slaked or hydrated lime. Lime should be in fine state of division to get pertect mixing with soil. ‘Ibis is real value 01 slaked quicklime over other terms. Untortunately often spoiled by bad slaking, being lett until like putty or has set rather hard again. Slake quicklime by sprinkling with water, and then spread over garden- Usual quantity is 5 lb. Per square yard, or 1 ton per acre. Lime helps by neutralising acidity, by breaking up heavy soils and making easier to work, by releasing certain plant toods locked up in soil, and by discouraging soil pests.

LIME-SULPHIJR – Mixture ot lime and sulphur used against certain insect pests and many fungus diseases of plants. Normally bought as proprietary article owing to ohnculties of mixing at home.

LIQUID MANURE – Animal urine and waste collected in tanks at farms is richest torn, of liquid manure. Drainage tram manure heaps is fairly good. Liquid manure tor feeding crops can be made up by tilling a sack with manure and hanging in tub of water. Do not put manure in water, as it clogs watering cans. Fertilizers, such as dried blood and most general artihmals, can be dissolved in or mixed with water and applied to plants.

LIVER OF SULPHUR (Potassium sulPhide) – Remedy for many plant diseases, replaced to some extent by lime-sulphur. Can be purchased as solution and diluted for spraying, which is the best way, or can be bought in dry lumps and dissolved in water. Against various rust diseases, such as bean rust, blackberry rust, and raspberry rust it is good control. If used in greenhouse, stains woodwork.

LOAM – Soils intermediate between sand and Clay are termed loarns. Word also used for soil made from turf ‘specially stacked for use in greenhouse work.

LOGANBERRY – P pular fruit, supposed to be a hybrid of raspberry and blackberry, and ideal for cooking and preserving. Plant is robust and strong, growing as much as 15 ft. In a year. Will thrive in odd corners, and can be used to cover walls or fences. If not grown against fence, wooden trellis must be erected for support. Propagation is by tip-layering. Plant in November or March, 8-12 ft. apart. Dig deep holes 2-3 ft. square, break up sub-soil, work in some manure, cover roots with good soil, and do not bury too deeply or damage any of the growth buds showing on root. Cut back to within 16 in. of ground after planting. Subsequent pruning consists of cutting out fruited wood after fruit has been picked, and tying in young growths to framework. Apply dressing of general fertilizer each year about I lb. Per plant.

LOGANBERRY BEETLE – This beetle appears in May, lays eggs in blossoms of loganberry, and larvse hatch and bore into the fruits. To control, spray twice with derris at flowering time.

MAGPIE MOTH – Pest of gooseberries and currants. Adult moths are rather striking, having wings of creamy-white with black spots, and some orange marks, Eggs are laid in July and August and hatch as caterpillars of “geometer” or “looper” class, having normal three pairs of proper legs just behind he head, but only two pairs of “pro-legs” or “sucker-feet” towards rear of body. Therefore must walk by “looping” body, drawing back legs up to front ones, then pushing these forward, and so on. When disturbed, save themselves from falling by releasing a silken thread on which to swing. These caterpillars feed for time, then hibernate for winter in cracks and crannies, under dead leaves, stones, etc. Emerge in spring and begin to eat young foliage of gooseberries. Bad attacks completely defoliate bushes. Spray shrubs with derris wash after fruit has been picked.

MANURE – All materials added to soils to increase plant-food contents, whether of animal origin or chemical fertilizers. Plants are made up of or contain between 20 and 30 chemical elements. By growing plants in special solutions, it has been found that 13 of these elements are absolutely essential. Without any one of them growth is incomplete or stunted. Essentials are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur

MARCH MOTH – One of moths whose caterpillars feed on leaves of fruit trees. Females are wingless and must climb trees to lay eggs. Tbi they do in March. Grubs hatch out, feed on leo” drop to soil and turn into pupae, remaining there until spring, when adults emerge. Best control is to trap females with grease bands on tree trunks. Another control is to spray with lead arsenate I spring.

MEALY BUG – Pest of plantssunder glass, particularly vines. They are about 1/10th in. long, with flattened, oval body and covered with mealy, – wax. Fumigation with hydrocyanic acid gas isl good method of control, or paraffin can be applied to clusters of pest with camel-hair brush.

MELON – Plants require plenty of sunshine; Sow seed in February and March in 3-in. Pots„, giving very little water until seedlings appear. Later plant out firmly in a good loarn containing well-rotted manure. Hand pollinate the female flowers with a brush or rabbit’s tail to ensure fruiting. Water sparingly at first, increasing as the fruit swells, and decreasing again as it ripens. Take care not to wet the “collar” of the plants or they will “canker”.

Varieties – Hero of Lochinge, Cantaloupe, Charantais.

MILDEW – Various fungus diseases visible on outside of plants. Two main classes are powdery inildews, chiefly superficial in growth and easy to ontrol by .dusting with sulphur; and downy mildews, which, while easy to see, are more deep-seated in tissues of plants, and are harder Io control. Flowers of sulphur or green sulphur are best materials to use for dusting.

MILLIPEDES – Soil pests feeding on underground parts of plants. Long in body, which is divided into segments, each segment having two pairs of legs, as opposed to the centipede’s one pair. Differ from centipede in being sluggish ot movement. Common in sour and acid soils, so liming helps to discourage them. Naphthalene worked into soil at 4 ozs. Per square yard helps to drive them away. Superphosphate put into seed drills when sowing helps to protect seedlings.

MINT – Popular herb. Prepare good patch of %oil and plant young shoots in spring. Propagation is by division of the roots or by cuttings taken in summer and rooted in boxes. Plant will thrive in shady corner.

MITES – Group of animals closely allied to spiders and belonging to class Arachnids. Not true insects, as they have eight legs instead 91 six. .rhey are minute, and many are bad plant pests, difficult to control, e.g., red spider mite, big butt mite. Lime-sulphur is frequently used as a control, and so is petroleum wash such as Volck.

MULCH – Covering of soil surface round a plant with manure, or other organic material such as grass mowings. Protects roots from fluctuating temperatures, and drying during drought.

MURIATE OF POTASH – Important potash .ilt containing 50 per cent. Of potash. As muriate, …Mains certain amount of chlorine – an impurity which can give slight check to growth. Therefore sulphate of potash is normally preferred although dearer. Aluriate is just as good, but should be applied well in advance of sowing seeds or setting out plants. Potash in any form is now exceedingly valuable and should be used with care.

MUSHROOM – An empty shed or cellar can be used, or a bed can be made outside. Best time to start bed is June or July, then mushrooms appear when year is cooling, and are not troubled by maggots, as are those produced at height of summer. Good, fresh horse-manure is necessary. Long straw is shaken out and short manure is placed in heap to heat op. Should be sheltered front rain. Turn it two or three times to allow ‘vorst of heat to work off. After eight or nine days beds can be made. Under cover, beds are made flat, about 12-15 in. deep and pressed down firmly. Out of doors, beds are placed in protected position and built into heaps 4 ft. wide and 3 ft. high. Bed is then covered with straw. Temperature of heap should be checked thermometer, and when the falling heat is 750-800 F., it is ready for spawning. Blocks of spawn are broken into pieces and pushed into manure about 2 in. deep. Watch bed for spawn beginning to run, mid when threads of fungus Mycelium can s,en pushing through manure, place layer of rather poor soil over lied and pat down. Keep outside beds protected with straw. Where manure is not available, chopped straw can be used alone, treating with special substances to induce fermenting and necessary heating up. Treat in same way as manure. Beds can be made up at any time, but those in bearing during summer are more prone to be troubled by fly. Pests – Mushroom fly, larvat of which burrow in buttons, devouring them. To prevent flies entering huts, cover ventilators with fine muslin and see there are no leaks anywhere else. When one crop is finished, fumigate with hydrocyanic acid gas, and again when new bed has been made up. Another pest is species of mite and this, too, is controlled by fumigation.

MUSHROOM SPAWN – Specially prepared bricks or blocks, dried and hardened, which contain threads of fungus which give rise to mushrooms. Usually purchased in cartons, It is advisable to buy a “100 per cent, pure culture,” as this can be relied on to contain only the true mushroom. The bricks are broken into egg-sized pieces and inserted in heaps of manure.

MUSTARD – Easily grown salad usually combined with cress. Sow seeds at .intervals of fortnight in greenhouse during winter, and outside in summer. Usually cut when 2-3 in. high. Mustard is also used as green manure crop. When combined with cress, cress should be sown three days earlier, as it takes rather longer to germinate and grow.

A-Z Of Gardening H-K


HALF-HARDY – Term applied to plants, usually grown in garden during summer, which will not survive winter out of doors.

HALF-STANDARDHALF-STANDARD – Form of fruit tree usually having main trunk from 4-5 ft. high.

HARDENING-OFF – Plants raised in greenhouse for planting out must first be accustomed to lower temperatures and outside conditions. When large enough, generally moved into warm frame, and from there to cold one, where they are given plenty of ventilation, gradually increased until lights are left off altogether.

HARD-WOOD CUTTINGS – Cuttings of ripened wood as distinct from those of soft green shoots.

HARDY – Plants which will stand winter out of doors.

HAULMS – Stems or stalks, and applied particularly to peas, beans and potatoes.

HEAVY SOIL – Any soil containing high proportion of clay.

HEELING-IN – Temporary planting of plants, shrubs or trees when received from nurseryman. Saves unnecessary exposure of roots by lying about until plants can be dealt with. For smaller shrubs and plants, trench is taken out roughly on vacant piece of land. They are placed in close together, soil is put over roots and pressed down with foot Larger subjects are placed singly in roughly-dug holes.

HERBS – Herbs are of three kinds culinary herbs, medicinal herbs, and herbs with aromatic foliage. First group mainly concerns us here, and more important onts are dealt with under names. Word alto applied to all green plants with soft foliage, other than shrubs and trees.

HOES AND HOEING – Push or Dutch hoe is one of most important tools. Not only destroys weeds but has other useful, attributes. For instance, by loosening surface soil it helps to prevent loss of moisture in dry periods. Also distributes bacteria about soil, and so, with nitrifying bacteria, helps to increase nitrogen available to plants. Hoeing, therefore, is worth doing well. Many people make the mistake of hoeing forward. Always hoe backwards. Stand on unhoed soil loosening portion in front, throw weeds forward, and walk slowly backwards. Never stand on ground already loosened. When hoeing out weeds, make sure that they are completely loosened and, if possible, turn them over with the roots facing upwards. If weather is dry, they may be left there to die, but if showery, should be raked of. Do not just push against the weeds and leave them to grow again. Take care when hoeing not to damage plants. Even slight damage done in this way can create wound which will admit bacteria and plant may be crippled or die. Useful push hoe is known as the Sproughton hoe, which can be worked between plants easily as well as down the rows, without having to be turned half sideways. To loosen soil thoroughly, hoe should be inserted about g to a in. deep into soil and pushed along underneath surface, loosening soil completely. The hoe is taken out and inserted into soil again 8 to g in. further back and pushed forward until it cuts through to previous insertion. This makes completely loosened layer on surface. Do not insert hoe too deeply, as plant roots may be cut, one of dangers of too frequent hoeing. Drag hoe is used for many purposes, such as earthing. Up and drawing drills. Also effective in breaking up lumpy land and destroying weeds. In using it against weeds, unlike push hoe, it must be worked forward. While standing on work just completed chop out weeds and throw behind. Drag hoe never completely loosens soil without tearing lumps out, and there is also danger of going too deep and cutting plant roots.

HOP MANURE – Spent hops from brewery can be built into heap and left to rot into useful manure. Several proprietary brands of hop manure on market made by specially treating and enriching the spent hops with selected fertilizers. Where animal manures are unobtainable or costly, any of these can be used as substitute, Heavy dressings not necessary.

HORSE-RADISH – Easily-grown plant. Pieces of thick root 3 in. long are planted in February, 15 by 9 in. apart. Push roots 3-4 in. down. Bet ter to replant each year than to abandon corner of garden to it.

HOT BED – Heap of fresh manure so arranged that heat generated can be used to grow plants. Mahure and leaves mixed, or dried leaves alone, will serve. Normally, heap is 2-3 ft. high and large enough to carry frame. Tread reasonably firm, and put on frame with 6-9 in. layer of soil inside. Seeds are sown, and light put over the top. Seedlings can be brought on quickly in this way, and out-of-season crops of carrots, turnips, etc., can be obtained. Cucumbers and melons can also be grown on hot bed.

HOVER FLIES – Large flies so named because they hover perfectly still in air. Beneficial as larvie feed on aphids.

HUMUS – Residue of decayed remains of plants and animals in soil. When organic matter of any description, such as straw, leaves, manure, etc., is added to soil it slowly decays, ultimpely losing original shape and becoming moist black substance. This is humus, vital constituent of soil. Humus is basis of soil fertility, and if lacking, good crops are not obtained, nor is full value got from any fertilizers added to soil. Under cultivation, humus in soil is always being broken down and used by growing plants. To maintain soil in fertile condition, organic matter must be continually added, hence value of animal manures. All humus-forming material which can be obtained, such as cabbage leaves tea-leaves, and other waste organic matter, should be stacked in compost-heap to rot.

ICHNEUMON FLIES – Large group of insects, parasitic on other insects and therefore beneficial.

KAINIT – Valuable potash fertilizer normally obtained from Germany and France, where it is mined. Contains several salts and also a petcentage of sulphate of potash. Apply to land in winter before crops are set out, to permit impurities to be washed out.

KALES – Sometimes called Barecole. Hardy greens of which there are many forms grown for human consumption. Best are Curled or Scotch kale, Cottager’s kale, Asparagus kale, and Drumhead kale. Sow seeds out of doors in April, and transplant 2 IL by 2 ft. in final positions in May and June, or as late as July,.

KOHL RABI or KOHL KOHL. Frequently called turnip-rooted cabbage, but is really turnipsiemmed cabbage. Edible part is not swollen mot like turnip, but compressed swollen stem, which makes excellent vegetable. Cultivation is dmilar to that of turnip. Sow in drills 12 in. alma in April or May, and thin to 9 in. apart. I Ise when hall-grown before becoming coarse. Varieties – Early White, Large Green.

A-Z Of Gardening – E-G


EARTHING-UP – Drawing ot soil around potato plants, around many other vegetables, such as celery and leeks, in order to produce white stems, and also around stems of late cabbage, savoys, etc., to protect them in winter.

EARTHWORMSEARTHWORMS – Essential to well-being of soil. Their burrowing drains and aerates soil. Peed on leaves and dead vegetation and much soil passes through their stomachs and gets well broken up. Deposit pasts on surface, bringing soil and plant foods from below to top. This helps to improve physical condition Pt soil.

EARWIG – Very destructive pest, feeding on the leaves, flowers and particularly fruits ot plants. Eggs are laid in soil in autumn in batches ot 50 or so, and female remains near until young emerge In spring. Adults feed at night, going Into hiding during day. By providing attractive ruding places tor them many can be destroyed. Inverted I flower pots on cane with hay or straw n it are good traps. Examine traps frequently, each day it possible. Bamboo canes and broad bean stalks are also good traps. A successful poison bait is made as follows – 4 lbs. Bran, 1 pint black treacle, # lb. Sodium fluoride, and 1 gallon of water. Bait is chiefly used in greenhouse.

EELWORMS – Tiny microscopic worms; many live within tissues of plants and cause much trouble. Thread-like creatures seen in soil are not eelworms; eelworrn is invisible to naked eye except tor teinales when swollen with eggs. Many varieties of eelworins, often named after plants they attack, e.g., Potato Eetworm which causes potato sickness. Stem Eetworm and Root-Knot Eelworm are serious pests in greenhouses, but can be controlled by sterilizing soil. Gatdens mole difficult to sterilize, and where potato eetworm has been present potatoes should not be grown tor a number of years.

ENDIVE – Useful salad tor autumn and write’ use when lettuce is scarce. Successive sowings are made from late June to early September. Sow seed on special outdoor bed; uanspifint seedlings 12 in. apart in rows also 12 In. apart. Need rich, well-dug soil. Leaves must be blanched tor eating by covering with a box or pot when endives fully grown. Do not use flat pieces ot wood or slate directly on the plants. Early sowings will mature out ot doors, but later ones should be lifted in October, and transferred to cold frame to finish. Two main types’ are Moss’ Curled, for early use, and Batavsan, tor winter supplies.

ESPALIER FRUIT TREES – Fruit trees with branches trained horizontally trom main uptight stein and spaced out equally. Apples and pears are chief fruits so grown. Used as fences, or along paths in kitchen garden, or for growing against walls. Branches are tied to wires, and growths are vigorously pruned.

FARMYARD MANURE – Now in very stunt supply. Consisting ot manure from all lam animals, mixed with plenty ot straw and other litter, it is ideal material tor couching soil. Chiet value is that it increases humus content, though it contains lair proportion of plant foods. Should be used whenever It can be obtained, but necessary now to use substitutes.

FERTILIZER – Artificial manures. Chemical compounds are purchasable as dusts or powders tor supplying foods to plants. Three important plant foods normally lacking in soil are nitrogen, potash and phosphates. Various substances aria compounds are obtainable wruch will make goon these deficiencies. Buy goon compouna manure containing all three moas, such as the National Growmore Fertilizer,

FISH MANURE – Fish waste dried and sold as manure is very good fertilizer. Can be dug into the soil untreated, but smell is offensive.

FLEA BEETLE – Tiny black beetles, usually about 1/10th in. long. Many species. Called flea beetles because of habit of jumping. Difficult to see, but damage they do to turnip and beet seedlings is obvious. They bite holes in leaves and sometimes completely destroy seedlings. When signs of attack seen, dust plants with deals powder. Naphthalene can be hoed in at sides of rows as deterrent.

FORMALDEHYDE AND FORMALIN – Formaldehyde is gas which, dissolved in water, is known as formalin. A 40 per cent, solution is of value for sterilising soils and for cleaning down greenhouses. Stings eyes, so apply carefully.

FUMIGATION – Use of vapours, smoke and gases to kill insect pests, chiefly in greenhouses. Various gases are used, such as hydrocyanic acid gas, naphthalene, and tetrachlorethane. Soils can also be fumigated by using gases as carbon bisulphide.

FUNGICIDE – Substances used to kill fungi. Most important contain copper or sulphur in one form or another. Examples are Bordeaux Mix- fare, ime-sulphur, potassium sulphide, copper sulphate, flowers of sulphur, Cheshunt Compound.

FUNGUS – The fungi are lowly group of plants which are either parasites existing on living plants or animals, or saprophytes which feed on dead plants or animals. Lack green colouring matter, chlorophyll, and therefore cant st build up foods from elements in soil and air like ordinary plants. Parasitic form on plants is cause of various diseases, e.g., Potato Ellight.

GARLIC – Member of onion family greatly favoured in southern Europe as food. In Britain, used mainly for flavouring. Taste is strong, and smell pungent. Bulb is split into separate scales called “cloves.” These cloves are planted in April, being pushed into soil 2 in. deep and 6-9 in. apart in rows 1 ft. apart. Boeing and weeding are only cultivations necessary. Lift when leaves turn yellow, leave in sun to dry, and store like onions.

GENERAL FERTILIZER – Fertilizer which contains all the important plant foods for general use.

GOOSEBERRY – Easily-grown fruit bushes

which will succeed on most soils. Plant November it, open, sunny position sheltered from wind, 4-5 ft. apart. Gooseberries can be grown as single-stemmed cordons and trained up walls and fences. Plant these 12 in. apart. First pruning after planting is important and is done before growth begins in spring. If bush is two or three years old and has four or five stems, cut these back to half to give foundations to future bush. Older and established shrubs are spur-pruned. Crowded shoots in centre are cut out, main shoots or leaders are tipped, while lateral growths are cut back to two buds. Where,birds peck out buds in winter leave pruning until just before growth begins again. Give annual dressings of general fertilizer at about lb. Per bush, and mulch in spring with farmyard manure. Pick proportion of fruitt while small and use for cooking and preserving. Leave few to mature and ripen fully for dessert. Propagate by raking cuttings 10 in. long of current year’s wood in September and October. Remove all buds except top five and plant out 9 in. apart.

Pests – Magpie Moth, Gooseberry Sawfiy, and the Gooseberry Aphis.

Diseases – Gooseberry Mildew and American Gooseberry Mildew.

GRAFTING – Propagation of fruit trees by putting short hardwood cuttings on to stems of specially-grown rootstocks. These rootstocks are selected for their vigour. By grafting on to one of poor vigour, dwarf trees are obtained, suitable for cordons or growing in pots. By using a strong rootstock, standard and half-standard trees are produced. Similar stocks of medium vigour are used to produce bush forms. There are various methods of grafting cuttings or scions on to stocks. Rejuvenation of old trees can be done by grafting, putting new varieties on framework of trees. Commonest way of joining graft or scion to the rootstock is known as “whip-and-tongue” grafting. Rootstock is first bought, planted in November, and allowed at least a year to establish itself. During winter, before grafting, prunings of healthy twigs of selected varieties are picked out, and heeled-in together in sheltered part of garden. In March grafting is begun. Cut back stock, which will be about 1/14 in. across, to within approximately 1 ft. of ground. Make clean cut with secateurs straight across. Take suitable piece of twig, which will be at least in. across, and cut it to 6 in. Make at bottom end long slanting cut 14 in. long. Knife should be sharp, and one cut should be enough to produce clean, unfrayeci surface. Next make cut on stock equal in size to that on scion. Place together to see that they are roughly identical. Two may be bound together thus but are apt to be easily loosened. To prevent this, make tongue by cutting an incision4 in. deep and 4 in. from tip of cut surface of scion. Make similar incision on stock so that tongue is also produced. Fit scion to stock, and two tongues will provide firm hold which rough weather will not loosen. Fasten tightly with adhesive tape or raffia, and paint over with grafting wax. Later, when scion and stop have grown together, raffia and wax are removed. Whip-and-tongue method can be used when “frame-working” established trees. All side shoots and sputs are removed leaving only bare framework of tree; scions of requisite variety are then attached to main stems by whip-and-tongue method. There are many other ways of grafting, such as the Cleft, Rind, Crown methods, but they are not within the scope of this Guide.

GRAFTING WAX – Special type of wax, for which there are various recipes, used to seal cut surfaces of stocks when grafting, to prevent spores of disease fungi entering, and to give strength to union.

GREASE BANDS – Certain moths, caterpillars of which damage fruit trees, have females which are wingless. To lay eggs in tree tops, these females must climb trunk, Grease bands are way of trapping them. Grease must be of type which always remains sticky, does riot melt in sun, nor set hard in frosty weather. Spread on 6-in, width of greaseproof paper tied around trunk.

GREEN MANURING – Useful method of manuring soil is to grow a crop specially for the purpose of digging in. Crop is sown usually after a vegetable has been cleared, such as early potatoes. Mustard is valuable for purpose, as it is a leafy crop and seed is cheap. Sow in spring, allow to grow to nice size, but not to flower, and then dig into soil. For sowing in autumn to be dug in in spring, rye, tares, or turnips are most suitable.

GROUND BEETLES (or Carabids) – Beneficial Insects living mainly on other insects. Only troublesome when adults go for strawberries, and then easily trapped by putting a little meat in jar and sinking it to the brim in soil. Larvee are carnivorous and do much good. Unfortunately, sometimes mistaken for wire worms and destroyed.

GUANO – South American name for bird droppings.

A-Z Of Gardening – D

Devils Coach

DAMPING OFF – Various fungi attack seedlings and young plants at soil level and cause them to collapse. To control, water with Cheshunt Compound.

DERRIS – The powdered rootstock of tropical plants, which contains ingredient (rotenone) poisonous to cold-blooded creatures, but not to man. Hence its suitability as insect poison on food plants.

Devils CoachDEVIL’S COACH-HORSE BEETLE – Recognisable by its habit of raising its tail when checked or threatened. It is a large insect and is beneficial, because it preys on other insects.

DIBBER – A piece of wood used for making hole, in soil in which to place the roots of plants. They range from small pencil-like pieces for small seedlings to large two-handed tools for potatoes.

DIE-BACK – Name for number of diseases of trees and bushes. Branches die back, usually starting at tip. Affected branches should be cut out and the wound painted. See to drainage and feed plants with potash to strengthen them.

DIGGING – Good digging is foundation of good gardening. Should be done as early as possible in winter, particularly with heavy soils. Only lightest soils should be left until spring. First divide plot in halves lengthwise, by putting line down centre. Then take out trench 12-15 in. wide spade-deep (10 in.) across end of one half. Clean out all crumbs and leave si4cs as straight as possible. Wheel or throw s60 on path near untouched half of garden. Begin to dig by turning over strip of soil 12-15 in. wide into trench, thus creating another trench exactly the same size. To do job thoroughly measure each width. Clean out all crumbs and place them on top. Proceed thus until end of plot is reached. Resulting trench can be filled from first trench on the other half of garden, and thus commencing point can be regained. Here soil on path from original trench can be used to fill last trench, and so complete job. Width and depth of trench must be kept same all through, to get perfect level. If there is turf or rough grass and weeds on the land, skim them and place face downwards in bottom of each trench and chop into small pieces. They will soon decay. Do not skim and stack turf unless it contains troublesome weeds or is needed for greenhouse work. This is simple digging. Better is double digging. Trench must be at least 2 ft. wide and be kept to same width right through operation. All crumbs must be cleaned out and placed on top of turned-over soil to ensure complete reversal. Bottom of trench is then broken up with digging fork. It is worth while even if subsoil is very heavy clay and difficult to loosen. If plenty of manure, or other organic materials such as peat, leaf mould or compost is available, scatter on bottom of trench and fork in. This is particularly valuable in preparing onion bed. Should the land be grassland, a strip of turf 2 ft. wide should be skimmed off, placed upside down in trench, and chopped small. The 2-ft. Strip of soil is then turned over on to chopped turf. Work with left side to trench, moving backwards down strip. The crumbs are again cleaned out and sides of trench straightened off. Cycle then begins again. Whole plot is done in this way, and last trench is filled with soil from first trench as with simple digging. This double digging is necessary in first year. Subsequently it need only be done every third year except for special crops, as onion. If manure, compost material or r organic matter is available, use judiciously, taking some into each trench as this is dug.

DISEASES – Plant diseases are of three main types – (1) those caused by attacks ot fungi which Ilve as parasites on plants, and include bacteria; (2) virus diseases; and (3) those caused by some natural process such as drought, frost, lack of certain foods, etc., and known as physiological diseases. Fungi diseases are most important. They cannot manufacture own food out ot salts from soil, so feed on green plants. Usually enter through wound, perhaps caused accidentally by tool, or made by insect or by weather, and often they enter through breathing pores in leaves to plants. Once inside, their threads grow and spread, permeating cells, feeding on contents. These cells die and show obvious signs of disease. Fungi mainly reproduce themselves by means of tiny bodies called spores. These are often produced in millions, and when ripe float in air and are borne by wind to other plants, which they infect. Only two substances known for killing these fungi are copper and sulphur. All remedies contain one or other in spme form. Sometimes possible to check these diseases, tor instance by liming soil. Sterilization of soil is also useful.

DIVISION – Method of propagation whereby larger plants with suitable rootstocks are split into numerous pieces.

D.N.C. – (Dinitro-ortho-cresol.) Modern winter-spray fluid for fruit trees.

DRILL – Small trench or furrow made with hoe or spade to receive seeds.

DRY-ROT DISEASE OF POTATOES – Disease of potatoes which occurs in storage. Tubers wrinkle and shrink, wrinkles being in concentric rings. Grey spots are seen on affected parts. Chiefly important on seed potatoes – affected tubers usually decay in soil. They should be destroyed.

DUSTING – Application of poisonous dusts to control insect pests and diseases.

A-Z Of Gardening – C


CABBAGE – A staple vegetable in our gardens. Seeds are sown in drills in seed bed from March onwards and will produce heads from July onwards. Varieties such as Velocity should be sown first, followed by Utility and Winningstadt. For winter work, Christmas Drumhead and January King will take succession to February. Plant out from April to July. Spring cabbage are sown last week in July or first week in August, and planted in cabbageSeptember and October. Bolting is risk with earliest sowings. Suitable varieties are Harbinger, Flower of Spring, Ellam’s Early. Distance between summer cabbage, large varieties 2 ft. each way, smaller varieties 18 in. by 2 ft. Pests – See Cabbage Aphis, Cabbage Caterpillar, Cabbage Root Fly, Cabbage White Fly.

CABBAGE APHIS – This pest is increasing. Attacks most members of brassica family. Grey mealy insect, generally found in clusters of many hundreds. Blotchy appearance of a cabbage leaf is sure sign of presence of colonies of insect on undersides of leaves. It passes the winter in the egg stage on the stems of brussels sprouts, certain weeds, etc. When these batch in spring, they spread to growing brassicas. Olonies resulting from initial infections may bccome so bad as to curl and distort plants and oilipletely cripple them. To control, spray immediately with nicotine. When established in large clusters, pest is most difficult to clear completely.

CABBAGE CATERPILLARS – Life history of butterfly or moth begins when eggs are laid. I hese hatch and produce caterpillars (larvae), which eat continuously until fully grown, when they turn into a pupa or chrysalis, wrapping themselves in a skin or cocoon. They next emerge as butterfly or moth, which begin circle again by laying eggs. Cycle is, therefore, eggs-larvae-pupreachilts-eggs. It is in larval or caterpillar stage that they are destructive. Cabbages and similar vegetables are attacked by caterpillars of three butterflies and two moths. They are large white, small white and green-veined butterflies, cabbage moth and garden pebble moth. Most important is large white butterfly, whose eggs are laid in clutches of a hundred; and when these hatch caterpillars are numerous enough to devour a large plant. Eggs of others are laid singly. The cabbage moth can be a nuisance, as caterpillar eats into heart of cabbage rather than feed on outer leaves. When butterflies are seen fluttering amongst green crops, plants should be examined frequently and any yellow eggs which are seen rubbed off. Should caterpillars appear, spray with derris. A spray made up with soft soap alone can be fairly effective. Derris is poisonous to caterpillars but not to humans, and should be sprayed on so as to cover leaves with film, both upper and lower surfaces. Alternatively, derris can be applied as a powder and dusted on. Although this does not appear as efficient as spraying, actually the plants are covered thoroughly with a consequent high percentage of control. There are sonic excellent powder blowers on the market, ranging from small one-hand affairs to quite large machines worked with a crank handle. Sprayers, too, are obtainable from small syringes up to large pneumatic knapsack-spraying machines.

CABBAGE LETTUCE – Ordinary type of lettuce as distinct from the upright growing cos lettuce. Resembles a cabbage in shape and way it hearts up.

CABBAGE ROOT FLY – Bad pest, not unlike house fly, which lays eggs in May in small batches at soil level near stems of brassica plants. They attack all members of cabbage family, especially cauliflowers. Also attack swedes, turnips, radishes, arid even stocks. As impossible to catch adult fly, prevent it laying eggs. Deterrents such as naphthalene are fairly successful, if two or three applications made in May and early June. Caloinel dust has come into vogue as control, but is rather expensive. Tarred felt discs, about 4 in. square, can be placed around stems and pressed flat on soil. These discs seem to be more effective if first dipped in calomel dust. Should a few plants show signs of flagging, and when pulled up have the white grubs eating into the stems, it is almost certain that most of crop has been attacked. It

is practically impossible to kill grubs in soil, and only thing which has chance of doing so is corrosive sublimate (poison). Solution made by dissolving 1 oz. In 124 gallons of water should be poured around plants. Two applications should be made. Also feed with nitrate of soda to stimulate growth.

CABBAGE WHITE FLY – Close relative of the aphis group of insects, and resembling greenhouse white fly. It attacks cabbages and allied crops, and is more usual in the south than the north. To control, spray with nicotine.

CACTI – In recent years the intetest in cultivating various members of the Cacti family and allied succulent plants has inmeased tremendously. These plants have aptly been called “Children of the Desert.” They thrive under dry and sunny conditions. For this reason they can be easily grown on window ledges, in cold frames or greenhouses and need little attention. In contrast to then spiky and formidable appearance the floweas are often of extreme delicacy and colouring.

There is a National Society which has for Its object the bringing together of all those interested in Cacti and other succulent plants. The Society also arranges exhibitions. Address enquiries to – The lion. Secretary, “Tree Tops,” Church Lane, Adel, Leeds, 6.

CALLUS – Tissue which forms at base of cuttings before roots develop.

CALOMEL DUST – Preparation Containing small amount of mercury, which kills eggs of fly pests of plants. Came into prominence during tee war, and has been used with fairly good effect against onion fly and cabbage root fly in particular. Unfortunately, price has risen, so that it is scarcely economic proposition for small garden.

CANKER – Disease of apple and pear trees. Spores of fungus enter branch or twig at some suitable spot such as wound or leaf scar. They give rise to fungal threads which grow inside, and a slight depression is caused in the bark, which becomes progressively larger. As decay advances, an open wound is caused. This spreads until branch may be encircled and die. Diseased branches should be cut out and all pruning wounds painted. Trees should be fed with sulphate of potash, not with fertilizers containing nitrogen.

CAPSID BUGS – Three main species of capsid bugs are pests in gardens; two attack fruit trees, and the third garden plants, particularly potatoes. Fruit should be sprayed in winter with wash containing petroleum oil or with D.N.C. Eggs are buried in bark and have only cap showing. Ordinary tar-oil sprays are not very effective in destroying eggs.

CARBONATE OF LIME – Chemical name for ordinary natural chalk and limestone, which, though chemically identical, differ physically in that limestone is hard rock while chalk is soft. Chalk is used on light soils, as it is, or ground into powder. Limestone is burnt in kilns to produce quicklime, and is slaked before spreading on land. Quicklime, or lump lime, absorbs water from air, venerates considerable heat and breaks down into fine powder. This is known as slaking.

CARDOON – Vegetable not commonly grown. Grows to height of 4 ft. or more, and has large deeply-cut leaves. Leafstalks are fleshy and white, and are edible. Seeds may be sown in March indoors, or in April outside where they are to grow. Inside, put two or three seeds in plant pot and reduce seedlings to one. Plant out in May after hardening off. Outside, sow on surface if soil is heavy, or in trenches if light. Seeds are put a few together at intervals of 2 ft. and later singled. Distance between trenches or rows is 3 ft. Feeding, watering and hoeing are main points in cultivation, until August, when plants are earthed up. Leaves are gathered together, wrapped with paper or straw, and banked with

CARROT – Staple vegetable which is classified according to the size and shape of roots, as stump. Rooted, short-horn, interwediate or long-rooted. First two are fairly quick growers. Seeds are sown, at regular intervals from March to August to provide succession of young roots, and are often grown in frames during winter. Intermediate and long-rooted varieties are grown as

maincrops for storage, being sown in April. Put seeds in drills 12 in. apart and sow thinly. To help thin sowing, seeds can be mixed with sand. Thin out the seedlings first to 2 in. apart and later to 6 or 7 in. Where carrot fly is nuisance in spite of attempts to control, shorter-rooted varieties should be grown, sown thinly and left unthinned, because smell of crushed leaves at thinning time attracts pests. Cultivation consists of occasional feeding with fertilizer and old soot, frequent borings in early stages, but fewer later. In later stages, a little soil can be drawn around plants to prevent shoulders of roots from turning green. When tops take on metallic yellow appearance in October lift plants on dry day and store unwashed roots in sand or clamp. On heavy soils or where long roots are wanted for exhibition, holes can be bored in the soil at 9-in. Intervals 2 in. across and 12 in. deep, filled with good soil, similar to that used for potting inside, and rammed gently. A pinch of seed is sown at top of each hole and covered with soil. Later the seedlings arc reduced to one.

Varieties – SMALL-ROOTED FORMS – Scarlet Horn, Early Gem, Early Nantes; INTERMEDIATE FORMS – James Intermediate, Chatenay; LONG-ROOTED FORMS – St. Valery, Long Red Surrey.

CARROT FLY – Maggots of this fly, hatching, from eggs laid on soil surface near plants, burrow and eat into roots of carrots. Flies appear in May and June and cannot be controlled by catching them. To keep flies away, use naphthalene hoed into soil between rows. Two or three dressings at 10-day intervals must be made. Spraying often with paraffin enaulsion is reasonable control, while old soot dusted over plants is also deterrent. Where crop has been attacked, soil must be dug early so as to expose any pupie to birds and frost.

CAULIFLOWER – Member of brassica family grown for compact flower head. It is produced in summer as not hardy like broccoli. Soil for cauliflower should be rich and well prepared. Earliest crops are obtained from seedlings raised in August or September and over-wintered in cold frame, planted out as soon as practicable in February or March. Seeds can be sown in heat in January, and plants, if well hardened-off, will be ready almost as soon. If desired, plants can be grown on in cold greenhouses in borders or pots and matured there. When planting outside allow 18 in, each way. They should head-up in June or July. Main crop is obtained from plants raised! On the outdoor seed bed in April. Cauliflower ‘ seedlings should not get any check in seed rows; but must be pricked out. Plant out 18 in. by 2 ft. Feed occasionally and water in dry weather. As, soon as the heads are ready, cut and use, or bend a leaf over to protect. Should a number head-up together, do not allow to bolt, but take them tip and heel them in soil in the corner of shed. – Varieties – Early London, Snowball, All Me Year’ Round for early crops; and A tauten Giant or Eclipse for later on.

CAUSTIC SODA – Sometimes used as winter wash for fruit trees to clean lichens and algie from hark. Dissolve 2 ozs. In 1 gallon of water. Super-…led now by various proprietary winter washes.

CELERIAC, or TURNIP-ROOTED CELERY – Pleasant vegetable. Can be used as – it vegetable, or in salads after boiling, like beetroot. Makes delightful soups. Needs rich .011 and plenty of feeding with liquid manure while growing. Sow seeds n March in boxes and germinate in temperature of 600 F. Prick seedlings 3 in. apart in other boxes, and gradually harden off for planting out in May. Plant in rows 1g In. apart and allow 9-12 in. between plants. Lift in October and store like other root -crops, ntst cutting off foliage.

CELERY – Needs rich, well-dug soil, and is best grown in trenches. Sow seeds in March In boxes hi greenhouse. Prick out 8 in. apart, and harden If for planting in May and June. Prepare trenches in late winter, digging them 18 in. deep and leaving them open for some weeks. Before planting put in good layer of farmyard manure, and fill with soil to within 10 In, of top. For mingle row trench should be 10-12 in, wide; for double row, 18 in. wide. Plant firmly 12 in. apart. As plants grow, water and feed with liquid manure. When growth almost complete, begin to earth, building up soil Sin, at a time once a week. Where possible, first wrap with paper, to keep clean. Mix a little naphthalene with soil while earthing to discourage slugs. Cover plants almost completely, leaving only tops of leaves showing. In frosty weather put some straw over rows. There are self-blanching varieties of celery which are useful for early work. By planting them in batches 12 in, apart, they blanch each other without any necessity for earthing-up. They are particularly useful for growing in frames after spring seedlings are cleared, and can be used before frame Is wanted for other purposes. Varieties – WHITE–Giant White, White Gem; RED – Giant Red; PINK – Giant Pink.

CELERY BLIGHT, or CELERY LEAF SPOT – Bad disease which attacks both celery and celeriac. It is seed-borne, and therefore seeds are generally treated with formalin before sale. Brown withered patches appear on leaves of attacked plants, and blight quickly runs through crop; whole leaves wither and plants collapse. Only control is Bordeaux mixture, which most be sprayed on when first signs of disease appear. A number of other applications must be given. The blight may at first be confused with attacks of celery fly or leaf miner, but if patches are examined, tiny grubs will be seen in them.

CELERY FLY – Maggot of celery fly is leaf miner. Eggs are laid in celery leaf, and when they hatch, maggot eats internal tissue, This forms yellow patches or blisters, and culprit will be found under skin. Best control is to keep fly away so that it shall not lay its eggs. Frequent spraying with paraffin emulsion is useful, and so is dusting with 3 parts of old soot and 1 part lime. When attack has taken place, grubs can be destroyed by squeezing yellow ‘latches, tearing out small patches after squeezing so as to avoid going over them again later. Leaves may be forcibly sprayed with nicotine wash, particularly undersides. This is fairly effective against maggots, which are well protected inside the skin of the leaf.

CENTIPEDE – Creature with long body divided into many segments and having one pair of legs on each segment, Often confused with millipede, which has two pairs of legs on each segment, which makes It slow, while centipede IS fast. Centipede is yellow or orange in colour, has strong biting mouth parts and feeds on insects, worms and other creatures in the soil. It is therefore beneficial and should not be destroyed. There are two main types in this country, one orange in colour, broad and strongly built, about an inch long or a little longer; the other, known as the snake centipede, is more than 2 in. long, thin and yellow, and when seen seems to twist itself into knots.

CHALCID WASPS – Minute creatures, quite unlike true wasps, are mainly parasites, the larym living within the larvee or pupte of other insects. White fly parasite (Encarssa formosa), which keeps white fly in check, is an example.

CHALK (Carbonate of Lime) – The natural rock is quarried and dressed on light sandy soils in winter and allowed to weather. Valuable for increasing lime content of such soils. About 1-2 tons per acre is normal application.. If put on at other times, should be purchased as powder. Chalk can also be turned into quicklime by burning.

CHARD – Blanched growths of globe artichoke, often used in autumn. Normally grown for edible flower heads.

CHERVIL – Herb used to give flavour to salads, to soups, and as garnishing. Sow seeds in drills 12 in. apart, and thin the seedlings to 6 in.

CHESHUNT COMPOUND – Many plants are attacked in seedling stage by diseases which affect them at soil level. Whole boxes of seedlings may collapse. The disease is known as Damping-off. Various fungi cause it. Best control is to water boxes of seedlings with Cheshunt Compound, made by mixing two parts of copper sulphate with eleven parts ammonium carbonate and storing in tightly-corked bottle. Dissolve 1 oz. In 2 gallons of water to use.

CHICORY – Grown for leafy shoots, forced and blanched in winter. Sow seed outside in May in rows 15 in. apart. Thin seedlings to 9 in. apart. Hoe and feed occasionally in summer. Lift roots in autumn, cut tops to within an inch of root, and store in soil or sand in suitable corner. Take some and place close together, upright, in box of soil, and place under greenhouse bench or other warm place in dark In about three weeks shoots can becut.

CHIVES – Herb, member of onion family, which grows in tuft-like Manner, similar to grass. Makes useful path edge and is used to flavour soups and stews. Seeds can be sown outside in March or April and thinned to 4-6 in. apart, or tufts can be divided and planted in March 6-9 in.

apart. Clumps may remain for some years, but should be periodically lifted, divided and replanted.

CHLOROPHYLL – The green colouring matter in the leaves of ordinary green plants. One of most vital substances on earth, as ultimately all life depends on it. By its means plants absorb energy from sun’s rays and use it to manufacture elaborate foods from simple elements.

CLAMP – Also called pit, hog, bury, pie, and grave, and has other local names. Potatoes and other roots are stored out of doors by building them into conical heaps, covering them with good layer of soil, and then banking them up with soil. Digging soil out creates trench around clamp, and helps to drain it. Tufts of straw are allowed to stick through top ridge to act as ventilators. Cover with straw and leave for a day or two before soiling, so that roots will sweat.

CLICK BEETLE – The parent stage of wire-worms.

CLOCHE – From French intensive gardening. The word means “bell,” and is now applied to glass cover of any shape. Modern cloche usually consists of flat glass sheets fastened together in simple wire frame to make miniature greenhouse or tent-shaped cover. These are placed end to end over rows of plants.

CLOVES – Name given to small bulbs which are really part of larger bulb, as with garlic or shallots.

CLUBROOT – Disease which attacks turnips, swedes, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, mustard, radish, etc., and some ornamental plants. Known as a Slime Fungi. During part of life consists of single cell, capable of moving about in soil. These cells move in layers of moisture around particles of soil, and when they chance upon root of suitable plant, force way inside. There they begin to multiply by dividing into twos, increase rapidly and irritate plant root into unconventional growth. Tissues swell, and swellings, if cut across, have mottled appearance and ultimately turn brown and rotten. They are sometimes confused with galls caused by turnip gall weevil, but the latter, if cut, contains grub or hole. Clubroot most common in acid or sour soils, so check by liming. Hydrated lime applied 1 lb. Per square yard should be used, and put on during winter or early spring. If there is much clubroot in land, further dressings of lb. Per square yard should be put on during two succeeding years. It is wise to have soil tested for lime content at intervals. Your local adviser will do it for you or tell you where it can be done. On land infested with clubroot disease, a number of things should be considered. First, rotation of crops is important. Keep any of cabbage family away from bad pieces of land for Come years, or cut down plantings of brassicas to minimum. Plants should be treated also with corrosive sublimate (mercuric bichloride), strong poison, which needs to be used with care. Dissolve 1 oz. In 1211, gallons water and apply to seedlings in seed bed at rate of 1 pint to every 5 ft. of row. When planting out, fill up holes with solution, and, after planting, water in young plants with it. Avoid acid fertilizers, such as sulphate of ammonia, superphosphate, and dissolved bones. Substitute basic slag, nitrate of lime, and nitro-chalk. Diseased plants should be burned. Do not allow roots to decay in soil.

COCKCHAFER – Adult cockchafer is a beetle, often called the May bug, because found in May feeding on leaves of trees. Lays eggs in soil, and eggs hatch into grubs, which grow big, feeding on underground parts of plants. Large, white and fleshy, with brown head, strong mouth parts, and three pairs of legs behind head. Latter end of body is legless, soft and fat. Normally in curled-up posture, and keeps feeding for three years before turning into pupa. Columns of this pest can be destroyed when digging, for they are easy to see. Naphthalene worked into soil is fairly effective against them. There are other smaller chafers, such as the summer chafer, the garden chafer, and the rose chafer.

COCKROACH – This pest is often nuisance in greenhouses, particularly harming seedlings. Trap by putting a little stale beer and sugar in jar and sinking almost to brim in floor. Poisoned bait made of Paris green lb., bran 14 lbs., water 1 gallon, and a little treacle, can be used. Powdered borax is said to be effective if dusted around haunts.

CODLIN MOTH – This is the grub that attacks the fruit and tunnels about inside the apple. Remedy – spray with tar oil during winter; after blossom falls spray with derris or D.D.T. Collect and burn maggoty apples.

COLEWORT – Sometimes called a Collard. Name formerly applied to ordinary cabbage ‘ generally, but now restricted to very small type, which was perhaps forerunner of modern varieties. Useful small winter green. Sow in May or June and plant in July 12 in. each way, or sow where they are to grow and thin to 9 in. apart.

COLORADO BEETLE – Very serious potato pest in America, which has come to Europe, and spread rapidly. Not yet become established in this country, but extreme vigilance is needed so that any infection may be spotted and dealt with quickly. Inform Ministry of Agriculture.

COMPLETE FERTILIZER – Prepared, thoroughly-mixed fertilizer which contains three essential plant foods – nitrogen, potash and phosphates – in various proportions. Use of good, complete fertilizer is usually better than trying to mix your own. When buying always get statement of percentage of ingredients.

COMPOST – Has two meanings in gardening – (a) collection of garden refuse made into heap and rotted down for manure; (b) mixture of soil and other ingredients specially prepared for potting purposes in greenhouse.

COMPOST HEAP – Farmyard manure has always been gardener’s way of enriching soil and maintaining fertility. Animal manures are scarce, and gardeners must find substitutes. Any material that will supply humus can be used. Spent hops straight from brewery or rotted down to make hop manure, peat, leaf- Id, straw, shoddy, sewage sludge, and slaughter-house refuse, are excellent materials. ‘toe of best waya of obtaining good humus upplying material is to collect all garden and Inmost refuse and rot it down in compost heap.

Everything of plant origin will decay naturally, ii left in casual heap. But this takes time, and t lie collection of refuse is offensive in appearance itiad smell. It may annoy neighbours and attract attention of sanitary authorities. Better and inoffensive method is a proper compost heap, built up in such a way that decay is accelerated and smell is imprisoned. Fertility of soil can be maintained and even increased merely by saving all garden refuse and composting it, and supplementing it with fertilizers. If plot is newly broken limn grass land, there will be enough reserve fertility in the soil to take through first year if sods are dug in. During that year collect all waste, rot it and dig it in during following winter. Various methods of compost-heap construction are recommended, but they are all basically the same. Rubbish is put in layers, and heap built up like series of sandwiches, using rubbish, soil, and other materials as alternating layers. Sort of materials and refuse suitable for Totting are tree leaves, grass mowings, vegetable leaves, plants that have run to seed, potato peelings, old straw, ordinary kitchen refuse, such as tea-leaves, egg shells carpet sweepings, in fact, anything that will decay. Soft hedge clippings can be included, though not long woody ones. Potato haulms and pea and bean tops are also useful. Weeds and faded flowers and old plants can be included. Wood or wooden sterns should not be included, but green stems, such as tomato and cabbage stalks, are suitable if chopped up. The following description gives the method of constructing simple type of compost heap. Choose spot in shade, but not too near house. Dig out a pit, 9 in. deep (the depth of the surface soil), 6 ft. long and 4 ft. wide. This is large enough for the amount of rubbish obtained from ordinary garden. Pile soli around side. Put layer of rubbish in pit about 12 in. thick, mix well, and break any stemmy material. If dry, wet thoroughly to help decay, preferably with liquid manure. Put layer of soil I in. thick on rubbish. This helps to absorb acids produced as material rots, and so speeds decomposition. If you are lucky enough to have a little ordinary manure to spare, place layer 2-3 in. thick on top of refuse and underneath soil. This helps decay and enriches material. Small amount of hydrated lime can be dusted on soil. On top of this place another layer of rubbish 6-0 in. thick, following again with soil or manure and soil. Repeat process until heap is from 8-4 ft. high, each layer being slightly narrower than previous, thus forming sloping sides. These sides should be banked with a 2-3 In. thickness of soil, and heap finished off neatly and left to decay. It will shrink considerably; but do not pack too tightly, as the more air that circulates through heap the quicker its decay. Be sure to keep it damp and sprinkle a little lime on it occasionally to prevent smell. Turn Eder six weeks. Two things indicate a well-made compost heap – (1) weeds should not grow on it; (2) material, when fit for mixing with the soil, should be uniformly dark in colour and have pleasant earthy smell. Such a heap can be as rich as farmyard manure.

CORDON – Specialised form of fruit tree, trained and pruned to single stem. Term also used for training of any plants on single stem, as with sweet peas.

CORN, SWEET (or MAIZE) – Tender plant more suited to cultivation in the south than in the north. In difficult areas seeds should be sown in greenhouse in early April, either singly in pots or in boxes. Can be planted out when hardened off in May. In some area, seeds can be sown outside in May. Set the seeds 6 in. apart in rows 2 ft. apart and thin to 12 in. Water in dry weather and feed occasionally.

Varieties – Early Golden Market, Golden Bantam.

CORN SALAD, or LAMB’S LETTUCE – Native of Britain and grown as salad. Sow during August in drills 12 in. apart; thin seedlings to 6 in.

CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE (Mercuric bit chloride); Dangerous poison. Handle with greacare and do not leave about. One of the best controls of clubroot disease and root fly of cabbage. The proportions are 1 oz. To 2 gallons of water.

CRANE-FLY, or DADDY-LONGLEGS – Adult of leatherjacket. Soil pest.

CRESS – Ordinary cress can be grown easily by sowing seeds on boxes of soil, on borders in warm greenhouse in winter, or outside in summer. Usually cut when about 2 in. high. Succession easy to get by series of small sowings.

CROPPING PLAN – All wise gardeners plan their crop lay-out well in advance of any planting or seed sowing. This is only way for maximum results, and it gives guidance on amounts of seed to order. Draw plan of outline of garden to scale say, 1/10th in. to 1 ft. Divide into three roughly equal portions. In one group have all green crops, in another potatoes and roots, and in last peas,. beans and miscellaneous crops. Draw lines across plan to indicate where crops will grow. For instance, if you are to grow two rows of dwarf peas, two of dwarf kidney beans, and two of broad beans, this will mean six rows each 2 ft. apart. Decide where you will place them in garden, then draw lines across plan 2/10th in. apart, to indicate where they are to go. Similarly with all crops according to distances they are to be apart, and write in the name of each one. Run all rows from north to south as near as your garden permits.

CROSS-FERTILIZATION – Fertilization of the female organs of one flower by the pollen from another. Often happens naturally, pollen being transported by wind or insects. But some flowers are always fertilized by pollen from themselves. In plants, like tomatoes, grown for fruits, Nature has often to be helped owing to artificial circumstances of growth, and rabbit’s tail is usually used. With hardy fruits, such as apples, modern varieties are so complex that pollen from their own flowers or from other trees of same kind is often useless. Therefore mixed planting of varieties it necessary.

CROWN – Perennial rootstock of any plant, such as rhubarb, is often called a crown, as is main plant of strawberry.

CUCUMBER – Staple article of diet in Russia and elsewhere in Europe. In Britain is grown chiefly I for salad. Ordinary type must be culti- vated n greenhouse or frame. Sow seeds singly in small pots around March, and keep in temperature of 650 F. As seedlings grow, pot into larger pots and give some support such as small cane to which to tie growth. Prepare bed either on floor or on bench of heated house. Mix soil by using good loam, well-rotted manure, some leaf mould, a little sand, and some general fertilizer-Build into heaps about 6-9 in. high and 2 ft. apart. Plant on these. Wires, to which growths can be tied, should be run horizontally along house a foot apart. Allow main stem to run to top of greenhouse, then stop it. Side shoots will be produced in axils of leaves, and should be trained sideways and tied to wires. Stop them at second leaf, allow one cucumber to grow from first leaf, and a cucumber and another stem from second. This stem is again stopped at second leaf, and so on as far as they grow. Allow side growths to overlap, but keep tied in to wires. Ridge cucumbers can be grown out of doors in sunny spots. Sow in April indoors, and plant in early June either on good soil heaps or in specially prepared positions.

Varieties – Improved Telegraph, Butcher’s Disease Resisting (frame); King of the Ridge (outdoors).

CUTWORMS – Among commonest of soil pests are cutworms or lame of certain moths. The turnip moth, heart and dart moth, and the yellow underwing moth are most common species. Prevalent all over country, caterpillars are dirty grey in colour and are found while digging. Do much damage, feeding on stems of plants, both below and above ground, hence their other name of surface caterpillar. You must keep your garden clear of weeds even when crop is finished, as weeds attract moths when egg-laying. Picking out grubs when digging is one of the best methods of control. If there is very bad infestation, use poison bait. A mixture of 1 lb. Paris green (arsenic oxide), of bran, moistened slightly and broadcast sparingly over surface, will kill many. This is dangerous poison and must be used with care.