CABBAGE – A staple vegetable in our gardens. Seeds are sown in drills in seed bed from March onwards and will produce heads from July onwards. Varieties such as Velocity should be sown first, followed by Utility and Winningstadt. For winter work, Christmas Drumhead and January King will take succession to February. Plant out from April to July. Spring cabbage are sown last week in July or first week in August, and planted in September and October. Bolting is risk with earliest sowings. Suitable varieties are Harbinger, Flower of Spring, Ellam’s Early. Distance between summer cabbage, large varieties 2 ft. each way, smaller varieties 18 in. by 2 ft. Pests – See Cabbage Aphis, Cabbage Caterpillar, Cabbage Root Fly, Cabbage White Fly.
CABBAGE APHIS – This pest is increasing. Attacks most members of brassica family. Grey mealy insect, generally found in clusters of many hundreds. Blotchy appearance of a cabbage leaf is sure sign of presence of colonies of insect on undersides of leaves. It passes the winter in the egg stage on the stems of brussels sprouts, certain weeds, etc. When these batch in spring, they spread to growing brassicas. Olonies resulting from initial infections may bccome so bad as to curl and distort plants and oilipletely cripple them. To control, spray immediately with nicotine. When established in large clusters, pest is most difficult to clear completely.
CABBAGE CATERPILLARS – Life history of butterfly or moth begins when eggs are laid. I hese hatch and produce caterpillars (larvae), which eat continuously until fully grown, when they turn into a pupa or chrysalis, wrapping themselves in a skin or cocoon. They next emerge as butterfly or moth, which begin circle again by laying eggs. Cycle is, therefore, eggs-larvae-pupreachilts-eggs. It is in larval or caterpillar stage that they are destructive. Cabbages and similar vegetables are attacked by caterpillars of three butterflies and two moths. They are large white, small white and green-veined butterflies, cabbage moth and garden pebble moth. Most important is large white butterfly, whose eggs are laid in clutches of a hundred; and when these hatch caterpillars are numerous enough to devour a large plant. Eggs of others are laid singly. The cabbage moth can be a nuisance, as caterpillar eats into heart of cabbage rather than feed on outer leaves. When butterflies are seen fluttering amongst green crops, plants should be examined frequently and any yellow eggs which are seen rubbed off. Should caterpillars appear, spray with derris. A spray made up with soft soap alone can be fairly effective. Derris is poisonous to caterpillars but not to humans, and should be sprayed on so as to cover leaves with film, both upper and lower surfaces. Alternatively, derris can be applied as a powder and dusted on. Although this does not appear as efficient as spraying, actually the plants are covered thoroughly with a consequent high percentage of control. There are sonic excellent powder blowers on the market, ranging from small one-hand affairs to quite large machines worked with a crank handle. Sprayers, too, are obtainable from small syringes up to large pneumatic knapsack-spraying machines.
CABBAGE LETTUCE – Ordinary type of lettuce as distinct from the upright growing cos lettuce. Resembles a cabbage in shape and way it hearts up.
CABBAGE ROOT FLY – Bad pest, not unlike house fly, which lays eggs in May in small batches at soil level near stems of brassica plants. They attack all members of cabbage family, especially cauliflowers. Also attack swedes, turnips, radishes, arid even stocks. As impossible to catch adult fly, prevent it laying eggs. Deterrents such as naphthalene are fairly successful, if two or three applications made in May and early June. Caloinel dust has come into vogue as control, but is rather expensive. Tarred felt discs, about 4 in. square, can be placed around stems and pressed flat on soil. These discs seem to be more effective if first dipped in calomel dust. Should a few plants show signs of flagging, and when pulled up have the white grubs eating into the stems, it is almost certain that most of crop has been attacked. It
is practically impossible to kill grubs in soil, and only thing which has chance of doing so is corrosive sublimate (poison). Solution made by dissolving 1 oz. In 124 gallons of water should be poured around plants. Two applications should be made. Also feed with nitrate of soda to stimulate growth.
CABBAGE WHITE FLY – Close relative of the aphis group of insects, and resembling greenhouse white fly. It attacks cabbages and allied crops, and is more usual in the south than the north. To control, spray with nicotine.
CACTI – In recent years the intetest in cultivating various members of the Cacti family and allied succulent plants has inmeased tremendously. These plants have aptly been called “Children of the Desert.” They thrive under dry and sunny conditions. For this reason they can be easily grown on window ledges, in cold frames or greenhouses and need little attention. In contrast to then spiky and formidable appearance the floweas are often of extreme delicacy and colouring.
There is a National Society which has for Its object the bringing together of all those interested in Cacti and other succulent plants. The Society also arranges exhibitions. Address enquiries to – The lion. Secretary, “Tree Tops,” Church Lane, Adel, Leeds, 6.
CALLUS – Tissue which forms at base of cuttings before roots develop.
CALOMEL DUST – Preparation Containing small amount of mercury, which kills eggs of fly pests of plants. Came into prominence during tee war, and has been used with fairly good effect against onion fly and cabbage root fly in particular. Unfortunately, price has risen, so that it is scarcely economic proposition for small garden.
CANKER – Disease of apple and pear trees. Spores of fungus enter branch or twig at some suitable spot such as wound or leaf scar. They give rise to fungal threads which grow inside, and a slight depression is caused in the bark, which becomes progressively larger. As decay advances, an open wound is caused. This spreads until branch may be encircled and die. Diseased branches should be cut out and all pruning wounds painted. Trees should be fed with sulphate of potash, not with fertilizers containing nitrogen.
CAPSID BUGS – Three main species of capsid bugs are pests in gardens; two attack fruit trees, and the third garden plants, particularly potatoes. Fruit should be sprayed in winter with wash containing petroleum oil or with D.N.C. Eggs are buried in bark and have only cap showing. Ordinary tar-oil sprays are not very effective in destroying eggs.
CARBONATE OF LIME – Chemical name for ordinary natural chalk and limestone, which, though chemically identical, differ physically in that limestone is hard rock while chalk is soft. Chalk is used on light soils, as it is, or ground into powder. Limestone is burnt in kilns to produce quicklime, and is slaked before spreading on land. Quicklime, or lump lime, absorbs water from air, venerates considerable heat and breaks down into fine powder. This is known as slaking.
CARDOON – Vegetable not commonly grown. Grows to height of 4 ft. or more, and has large deeply-cut leaves. Leafstalks are fleshy and white, and are edible. Seeds may be sown in March indoors, or in April outside where they are to grow. Inside, put two or three seeds in plant pot and reduce seedlings to one. Plant out in May after hardening off. Outside, sow on surface if soil is heavy, or in trenches if light. Seeds are put a few together at intervals of 2 ft. and later singled. Distance between trenches or rows is 3 ft. Feeding, watering and hoeing are main points in cultivation, until August, when plants are earthed up. Leaves are gathered together, wrapped with paper or straw, and banked with
CARROT – Staple vegetable which is classified according to the size and shape of roots, as stump. Rooted, short-horn, interwediate or long-rooted. First two are fairly quick growers. Seeds are sown, at regular intervals from March to August to provide succession of young roots, and are often grown in frames during winter. Intermediate and long-rooted varieties are grown as
maincrops for storage, being sown in April. Put seeds in drills 12 in. apart and sow thinly. To help thin sowing, seeds can be mixed with sand. Thin out the seedlings first to 2 in. apart and later to 6 or 7 in. Where carrot fly is nuisance in spite of attempts to control, shorter-rooted varieties should be grown, sown thinly and left unthinned, because smell of crushed leaves at thinning time attracts pests. Cultivation consists of occasional feeding with fertilizer and old soot, frequent borings in early stages, but fewer later. In later stages, a little soil can be drawn around plants to prevent shoulders of roots from turning green. When tops take on metallic yellow appearance in October lift plants on dry day and store unwashed roots in sand or clamp. On heavy soils or where long roots are wanted for exhibition, holes can be bored in the soil at 9-in. Intervals 2 in. across and 12 in. deep, filled with good soil, similar to that used for potting inside, and rammed gently. A pinch of seed is sown at top of each hole and covered with soil. Later the seedlings arc reduced to one.
Varieties – SMALL-ROOTED FORMS – Scarlet Horn, Early Gem, Early Nantes; INTERMEDIATE FORMS – James Intermediate, Chatenay; LONG-ROOTED FORMS – St. Valery, Long Red Surrey.
CARROT FLY – Maggots of this fly, hatching, from eggs laid on soil surface near plants, burrow and eat into roots of carrots. Flies appear in May and June and cannot be controlled by catching them. To keep flies away, use naphthalene hoed into soil between rows. Two or three dressings at 10-day intervals must be made. Spraying often with paraffin enaulsion is reasonable control, while old soot dusted over plants is also deterrent. Where crop has been attacked, soil must be dug early so as to expose any pupie to birds and frost.
CAULIFLOWER – Member of brassica family grown for compact flower head. It is produced in summer as not hardy like broccoli. Soil for cauliflower should be rich and well prepared. Earliest crops are obtained from seedlings raised in August or September and over-wintered in cold frame, planted out as soon as practicable in February or March. Seeds can be sown in heat in January, and plants, if well hardened-off, will be ready almost as soon. If desired, plants can be grown on in cold greenhouses in borders or pots and matured there. When planting outside allow 18 in, each way. They should head-up in June or July. Main crop is obtained from plants raised! On the outdoor seed bed in April. Cauliflower ‘ seedlings should not get any check in seed rows; but must be pricked out. Plant out 18 in. by 2 ft. Feed occasionally and water in dry weather. As, soon as the heads are ready, cut and use, or bend a leaf over to protect. Should a number head-up together, do not allow to bolt, but take them tip and heel them in soil in the corner of shed. – Varieties – Early London, Snowball, All Me Year’ Round for early crops; and A tauten Giant or Eclipse for later on.
CAUSTIC SODA – Sometimes used as winter wash for fruit trees to clean lichens and algie from hark. Dissolve 2 ozs. In 1 gallon of water. Super-…led now by various proprietary winter washes.
CELERIAC, or TURNIP-ROOTED CELERY – Pleasant vegetable. Can be used as – it vegetable, or in salads after boiling, like beetroot. Makes delightful soups. Needs rich .011 and plenty of feeding with liquid manure while growing. Sow seeds n March in boxes and germinate in temperature of 600 F. Prick seedlings 3 in. apart in other boxes, and gradually harden off for planting out in May. Plant in rows 1g In. apart and allow 9-12 in. between plants. Lift in October and store like other root -crops, ntst cutting off foliage.
CELERY – Needs rich, well-dug soil, and is best grown in trenches. Sow seeds in March In boxes hi greenhouse. Prick out 8 in. apart, and harden If for planting in May and June. Prepare trenches in late winter, digging them 18 in. deep and leaving them open for some weeks. Before planting put in good layer of farmyard manure, and fill with soil to within 10 In, of top. For mingle row trench should be 10-12 in, wide; for double row, 18 in. wide. Plant firmly 12 in. apart. As plants grow, water and feed with liquid manure. When growth almost complete, begin to earth, building up soil Sin, at a time once a week. Where possible, first wrap with paper, to keep clean. Mix a little naphthalene with soil while earthing to discourage slugs. Cover plants almost completely, leaving only tops of leaves showing. In frosty weather put some straw over rows. There are self-blanching varieties of celery which are useful for early work. By planting them in batches 12 in, apart, they blanch each other without any necessity for earthing-up. They are particularly useful for growing in frames after spring seedlings are cleared, and can be used before frame Is wanted for other purposes. Varieties – WHITE–Giant White, White Gem; RED – Giant Red; PINK – Giant Pink.
CELERY BLIGHT, or CELERY LEAF SPOT – Bad disease which attacks both celery and celeriac. It is seed-borne, and therefore seeds are generally treated with formalin before sale. Brown withered patches appear on leaves of attacked plants, and blight quickly runs through crop; whole leaves wither and plants collapse. Only control is Bordeaux mixture, which most be sprayed on when first signs of disease appear. A number of other applications must be given. The blight may at first be confused with attacks of celery fly or leaf miner, but if patches are examined, tiny grubs will be seen in them.
CELERY FLY – Maggot of celery fly is leaf miner. Eggs are laid in celery leaf, and when they hatch, maggot eats internal tissue, This forms yellow patches or blisters, and culprit will be found under skin. Best control is to keep fly away so that it shall not lay its eggs. Frequent spraying with paraffin emulsion is useful, and so is dusting with 3 parts of old soot and 1 part lime. When attack has taken place, grubs can be destroyed by squeezing yellow ‘latches, tearing out small patches after squeezing so as to avoid going over them again later. Leaves may be forcibly sprayed with nicotine wash, particularly undersides. This is fairly effective against maggots, which are well protected inside the skin of the leaf.
CENTIPEDE – Creature with long body divided into many segments and having one pair of legs on each segment, Often confused with millipede, which has two pairs of legs on each segment, which makes It slow, while centipede IS fast. Centipede is yellow or orange in colour, has strong biting mouth parts and feeds on insects, worms and other creatures in the soil. It is therefore beneficial and should not be destroyed. There are two main types in this country, one orange in colour, broad and strongly built, about an inch long or a little longer; the other, known as the snake centipede, is more than 2 in. long, thin and yellow, and when seen seems to twist itself into knots.
CHALCID WASPS – Minute creatures, quite unlike true wasps, are mainly parasites, the larym living within the larvee or pupte of other insects. White fly parasite (Encarssa formosa), which keeps white fly in check, is an example.
CHALK (Carbonate of Lime) – The natural rock is quarried and dressed on light sandy soils in winter and allowed to weather. Valuable for increasing lime content of such soils. About 1-2 tons per acre is normal application.. If put on at other times, should be purchased as powder. Chalk can also be turned into quicklime by burning.
CHARD – Blanched growths of globe artichoke, often used in autumn. Normally grown for edible flower heads.
CHERVIL – Herb used to give flavour to salads, to soups, and as garnishing. Sow seeds in drills 12 in. apart, and thin the seedlings to 6 in.
CHESHUNT COMPOUND – Many plants are attacked in seedling stage by diseases which affect them at soil level. Whole boxes of seedlings may collapse. The disease is known as Damping-off. Various fungi cause it. Best control is to water boxes of seedlings with Cheshunt Compound, made by mixing two parts of copper sulphate with eleven parts ammonium carbonate and storing in tightly-corked bottle. Dissolve 1 oz. In 2 gallons of water to use.
CHICORY – Grown for leafy shoots, forced and blanched in winter. Sow seed outside in May in rows 15 in. apart. Thin seedlings to 9 in. apart. Hoe and feed occasionally in summer. Lift roots in autumn, cut tops to within an inch of root, and store in soil or sand in suitable corner. Take some and place close together, upright, in box of soil, and place under greenhouse bench or other warm place in dark In about three weeks shoots can becut.
CHIVES – Herb, member of onion family, which grows in tuft-like Manner, similar to grass. Makes useful path edge and is used to flavour soups and stews. Seeds can be sown outside in March or April and thinned to 4-6 in. apart, or tufts can be divided and planted in March 6-9 in.
apart. Clumps may remain for some years, but should be periodically lifted, divided and replanted.
CHLOROPHYLL – The green colouring matter in the leaves of ordinary green plants. One of most vital substances on earth, as ultimately all life depends on it. By its means plants absorb energy from sun’s rays and use it to manufacture elaborate foods from simple elements.
CLAMP – Also called pit, hog, bury, pie, and grave, and has other local names. Potatoes and other roots are stored out of doors by building them into conical heaps, covering them with good layer of soil, and then banking them up with soil. Digging soil out creates trench around clamp, and helps to drain it. Tufts of straw are allowed to stick through top ridge to act as ventilators. Cover with straw and leave for a day or two before soiling, so that roots will sweat.
CLICK BEETLE – The parent stage of wire-worms.
CLOCHE – From French intensive gardening. The word means “bell,” and is now applied to glass cover of any shape. Modern cloche usually consists of flat glass sheets fastened together in simple wire frame to make miniature greenhouse or tent-shaped cover. These are placed end to end over rows of plants.
CLOVES – Name given to small bulbs which are really part of larger bulb, as with garlic or shallots.
CLUBROOT – Disease which attacks turnips, swedes, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, mustard, radish, etc., and some ornamental plants. Known as a Slime Fungi. During part of life consists of single cell, capable of moving about in soil. These cells move in layers of moisture around particles of soil, and when they chance upon root of suitable plant, force way inside. There they begin to multiply by dividing into twos, increase rapidly and irritate plant root into unconventional growth. Tissues swell, and swellings, if cut across, have mottled appearance and ultimately turn brown and rotten. They are sometimes confused with galls caused by turnip gall weevil, but the latter, if cut, contains grub or hole. Clubroot most common in acid or sour soils, so check by liming. Hydrated lime applied 1 lb. Per square yard should be used, and put on during winter or early spring. If there is much clubroot in land, further dressings of lb. Per square yard should be put on during two succeeding years. It is wise to have soil tested for lime content at intervals. Your local adviser will do it for you or tell you where it can be done. On land infested with clubroot disease, a number of things should be considered. First, rotation of crops is important. Keep any of cabbage family away from bad pieces of land for Come years, or cut down plantings of brassicas to minimum. Plants should be treated also with corrosive sublimate (mercuric bichloride), strong poison, which needs to be used with care. Dissolve 1 oz. In 1211, gallons water and apply to seedlings in seed bed at rate of 1 pint to every 5 ft. of row. When planting out, fill up holes with solution, and, after planting, water in young plants with it. Avoid acid fertilizers, such as sulphate of ammonia, superphosphate, and dissolved bones. Substitute basic slag, nitrate of lime, and nitro-chalk. Diseased plants should be burned. Do not allow roots to decay in soil.
COCKCHAFER – Adult cockchafer is a beetle, often called the May bug, because found in May feeding on leaves of trees. Lays eggs in soil, and eggs hatch into grubs, which grow big, feeding on underground parts of plants. Large, white and fleshy, with brown head, strong mouth parts, and three pairs of legs behind head. Latter end of body is legless, soft and fat. Normally in curled-up posture, and keeps feeding for three years before turning into pupa. Columns of this pest can be destroyed when digging, for they are easy to see. Naphthalene worked into soil is fairly effective against them. There are other smaller chafers, such as the summer chafer, the garden chafer, and the rose chafer.
COCKROACH – This pest is often nuisance in greenhouses, particularly harming seedlings. Trap by putting a little stale beer and sugar in jar and sinking almost to brim in floor. Poisoned bait made of Paris green lb., bran 14 lbs., water 1 gallon, and a little treacle, can be used. Powdered borax is said to be effective if dusted around haunts.
CODLIN MOTH – This is the grub that attacks the fruit and tunnels about inside the apple. Remedy – spray with tar oil during winter; after blossom falls spray with derris or D.D.T. Collect and burn maggoty apples.
COLEWORT – Sometimes called a Collard. Name formerly applied to ordinary cabbage ‘ generally, but now restricted to very small type, which was perhaps forerunner of modern varieties. Useful small winter green. Sow in May or June and plant in July 12 in. each way, or sow where they are to grow and thin to 9 in. apart.
COLORADO BEETLE – Very serious potato pest in America, which has come to Europe, and spread rapidly. Not yet become established in this country, but extreme vigilance is needed so that any infection may be spotted and dealt with quickly. Inform Ministry of Agriculture.
COMPLETE FERTILIZER – Prepared, thoroughly-mixed fertilizer which contains three essential plant foods – nitrogen, potash and phosphates – in various proportions. Use of good, complete fertilizer is usually better than trying to mix your own. When buying always get statement of percentage of ingredients.
COMPOST – Has two meanings in gardening – (a) collection of garden refuse made into heap and rotted down for manure; (b) mixture of soil and other ingredients specially prepared for potting purposes in greenhouse.
COMPOST HEAP – Farmyard manure has always been gardener’s way of enriching soil and maintaining fertility. Animal manures are scarce, and gardeners must find substitutes. Any material that will supply humus can be used. Spent hops straight from brewery or rotted down to make hop manure, peat, leaf- Id, straw, shoddy, sewage sludge, and slaughter-house refuse, are excellent materials. ‘toe of best waya of obtaining good humus upplying material is to collect all garden and Inmost refuse and rot it down in compost heap.
Everything of plant origin will decay naturally, ii left in casual heap. But this takes time, and t lie collection of refuse is offensive in appearance itiad smell. It may annoy neighbours and attract attention of sanitary authorities. Better and inoffensive method is a proper compost heap, built up in such a way that decay is accelerated and smell is imprisoned. Fertility of soil can be maintained and even increased merely by saving all garden refuse and composting it, and supplementing it with fertilizers. If plot is newly broken limn grass land, there will be enough reserve fertility in the soil to take through first year if sods are dug in. During that year collect all waste, rot it and dig it in during following winter. Various methods of compost-heap construction are recommended, but they are all basically the same. Rubbish is put in layers, and heap built up like series of sandwiches, using rubbish, soil, and other materials as alternating layers. Sort of materials and refuse suitable for Totting are tree leaves, grass mowings, vegetable leaves, plants that have run to seed, potato peelings, old straw, ordinary kitchen refuse, such as tea-leaves, egg shells carpet sweepings, in fact, anything that will decay. Soft hedge clippings can be included, though not long woody ones. Potato haulms and pea and bean tops are also useful. Weeds and faded flowers and old plants can be included. Wood or wooden sterns should not be included, but green stems, such as tomato and cabbage stalks, are suitable if chopped up. The following description gives the method of constructing simple type of compost heap. Choose spot in shade, but not too near house. Dig out a pit, 9 in. deep (the depth of the surface soil), 6 ft. long and 4 ft. wide. This is large enough for the amount of rubbish obtained from ordinary garden. Pile soli around side. Put layer of rubbish in pit about 12 in. thick, mix well, and break any stemmy material. If dry, wet thoroughly to help decay, preferably with liquid manure. Put layer of soil I in. thick on rubbish. This helps to absorb acids produced as material rots, and so speeds decomposition. If you are lucky enough to have a little ordinary manure to spare, place layer 2-3 in. thick on top of refuse and underneath soil. This helps decay and enriches material. Small amount of hydrated lime can be dusted on soil. On top of this place another layer of rubbish 6-0 in. thick, following again with soil or manure and soil. Repeat process until heap is from 8-4 ft. high, each layer being slightly narrower than previous, thus forming sloping sides. These sides should be banked with a 2-3 In. thickness of soil, and heap finished off neatly and left to decay. It will shrink considerably; but do not pack too tightly, as the more air that circulates through heap the quicker its decay. Be sure to keep it damp and sprinkle a little lime on it occasionally to prevent smell. Turn Eder six weeks. Two things indicate a well-made compost heap – (1) weeds should not grow on it; (2) material, when fit for mixing with the soil, should be uniformly dark in colour and have pleasant earthy smell. Such a heap can be as rich as farmyard manure.
CORDON – Specialised form of fruit tree, trained and pruned to single stem. Term also used for training of any plants on single stem, as with sweet peas.
CORN, SWEET (or MAIZE) – Tender plant more suited to cultivation in the south than in the north. In difficult areas seeds should be sown in greenhouse in early April, either singly in pots or in boxes. Can be planted out when hardened off in May. In some area, seeds can be sown outside in May. Set the seeds 6 in. apart in rows 2 ft. apart and thin to 12 in. Water in dry weather and feed occasionally.
Varieties – Early Golden Market, Golden Bantam.
CORN SALAD, or LAMB’S LETTUCE – Native of Britain and grown as salad. Sow during August in drills 12 in. apart; thin seedlings to 6 in.
CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE (Mercuric bit chloride); Dangerous poison. Handle with greacare and do not leave about. One of the best controls of clubroot disease and root fly of cabbage. The proportions are 1 oz. To 2 gallons of water.
CRANE-FLY, or DADDY-LONGLEGS – Adult of leatherjacket. Soil pest.
CRESS – Ordinary cress can be grown easily by sowing seeds on boxes of soil, on borders in warm greenhouse in winter, or outside in summer. Usually cut when about 2 in. high. Succession easy to get by series of small sowings.
CROPPING PLAN – All wise gardeners plan their crop lay-out well in advance of any planting or seed sowing. This is only way for maximum results, and it gives guidance on amounts of seed to order. Draw plan of outline of garden to scale say, 1/10th in. to 1 ft. Divide into three roughly equal portions. In one group have all green crops, in another potatoes and roots, and in last peas,. beans and miscellaneous crops. Draw lines across plan to indicate where crops will grow. For instance, if you are to grow two rows of dwarf peas, two of dwarf kidney beans, and two of broad beans, this will mean six rows each 2 ft. apart. Decide where you will place them in garden, then draw lines across plan 2/10th in. apart, to indicate where they are to go. Similarly with all crops according to distances they are to be apart, and write in the name of each one. Run all rows from north to south as near as your garden permits.
CROSS-FERTILIZATION – Fertilization of the female organs of one flower by the pollen from another. Often happens naturally, pollen being transported by wind or insects. But some flowers are always fertilized by pollen from themselves. In plants, like tomatoes, grown for fruits, Nature has often to be helped owing to artificial circumstances of growth, and rabbit’s tail is usually used. With hardy fruits, such as apples, modern varieties are so complex that pollen from their own flowers or from other trees of same kind is often useless. Therefore mixed planting of varieties it necessary.
CROWN – Perennial rootstock of any plant, such as rhubarb, is often called a crown, as is main plant of strawberry.
CUCUMBER – Staple article of diet in Russia and elsewhere in Europe. In Britain is grown chiefly I for salad. Ordinary type must be culti- vated n greenhouse or frame. Sow seeds singly in small pots around March, and keep in temperature of 650 F. As seedlings grow, pot into larger pots and give some support such as small cane to which to tie growth. Prepare bed either on floor or on bench of heated house. Mix soil by using good loam, well-rotted manure, some leaf mould, a little sand, and some general fertilizer-Build into heaps about 6-9 in. high and 2 ft. apart. Plant on these. Wires, to which growths can be tied, should be run horizontally along house a foot apart. Allow main stem to run to top of greenhouse, then stop it. Side shoots will be produced in axils of leaves, and should be trained sideways and tied to wires. Stop them at second leaf, allow one cucumber to grow from first leaf, and a cucumber and another stem from second. This stem is again stopped at second leaf, and so on as far as they grow. Allow side growths to overlap, but keep tied in to wires. Ridge cucumbers can be grown out of doors in sunny spots. Sow in April indoors, and plant in early June either on good soil heaps or in specially prepared positions.
Varieties – Improved Telegraph, Butcher’s Disease Resisting (frame); King of the Ridge (outdoors).
CUTWORMS – Among commonest of soil pests are cutworms or lame of certain moths. The turnip moth, heart and dart moth, and the yellow underwing moth are most common species. Prevalent all over country, caterpillars are dirty grey in colour and are found while digging. Do much damage, feeding on stems of plants, both below and above ground, hence their other name of surface caterpillar. You must keep your garden clear of weeds even when crop is finished, as weeds attract moths when egg-laying. Picking out grubs when digging is one of the best methods of control. If there is very bad infestation, use poison bait. A mixture of 1 lb. Paris green (arsenic oxide), of bran, moistened slightly and broadcast sparingly over surface, will kill many. This is dangerous poison and must be used with care.